Level: beginner

Yes/No questions

Yes/No questions are questions which we answer with Yes or No. Look at these statements:

They are working hard.
They will be working hard.
They had worked hard.
They have been working hard.
They might have been working hard.

We make Yes/No questions by putting the first part of the verb in front of the subject:

Are they working hard? 
Will they be working hard?
Had they worked hard?
Have they been working hard?
Might they have been working hard?

Yes/No questions 1
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Yes/No questions 2
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Negatives

We make negatives by putting not after the first part of the verb:

They are not working hard.
They will not be working hard.
They had not worked hard.
They have not been working hard.
They might not have been working hard.

In spoken English, we often reduce not to n’t:

They aren't working hard.
They won't be working hard.
They hadn't been working hard.
They haven't been working hard.
They mightn't have been working hard.

Negatives 1

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Negatives 2

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Present simple and past simple questions and negatives

For all verbs except be and have, we use do/does or did to make Yes/No questions in the present simple and past simple:

They work hard. > Do they work hard?
He works hard. Does he work hard?
They worked hard. Did they work hard?

For all verbs except be and have, we use do/does + not or did + not to make negatives in the present simple and past simple:

They work hard. > They do not (don't) work hard
.
They work hard. > He does not (doesn't) work hard.
They worked hard. > They did not (didn't) work hard.

Here are the question forms and negative forms for be in the present simple and past simple:

Positives Questions Negatives
I am (I'm) Am I? I am not (I'm not)
He is (he's) Is he? He is not (He's not/He isn't)
She is (she's) Is she? She is not (She's not/She isn't)
It is (it's) Is it? It is not (It's not/It isn't)
You are (you're) Are you? You are not (You're not/You aren't)
They are (they're) Are they? They are not (They're not/They aren't)
Positives Questions Negatives
I was Was I? I was not (I wasn't)
He was Was he? He was not (He wasn't)
She was Was she? She was not (She wasn't)
It was Was it? It was not (It wasn't)
You were Were you? You were not (You weren't)
They were Were they? They were not (They weren't)

We make questions and negatives with have in two ways. Usually we use do/does or did:

Do you have plenty of time?
Does she have enough money?
Did they have any useful advice?

don't have much time.
She doesn't have any money.
They didn't have any advice to offer.

but we can also make questions by putting have/has or had in front of the subject:

Have you plenty of time?
Has she enough money?
Had they any useful advice?

and make negatives by putting not or n't after have/has or had:

haven't much time.
She hasn't any money.
He hadn't any advice to offer.

Present simple and past simple questions and negatives 1

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Present simple and past simple questions and negatives 2

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Wh-questions

Wh-questions are questions which start with a word like what, when, where, which, who, whose, why and how.

Question words

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Questions with when, where, why

We form wh-questions with these words by putting the question word in front of a Yes/No question:

They are working in a shop. > Where are they working?
They have been working hard for their exams. > Why have they been working hard?
They arrived at six. > When did they arrive?

Questions with who, what, which

When we ask whowhat and which about the object of the verb, we put the question word in front of a Yes/No question:

He is seeing Joe tomorrow. > Who is he seeing tomorrow?
I want a computer for my birthday. > What do you want for your birthday?
I'd prefer some tea. > Which would you prefer, tea or coffee?
Wh-questions 1

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When we ask whowhat and which about the subject of the verb, the question word takes the place of the subject:

Barbara gave me the chocolates. > Who gave you the chocolates?
Something funny happened. > What happened?
The dog frightened the children > Which dog frightened the children?

We sometimes use what or which with a noun:

What subjects did you study at school?
Which English newspaper started in 1986?
What subjects does everyone have to study?
Which newspaper do you prefer, the Times or the Guardian?

Wh-questions 2

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Questions with how

We use how for many different questions:

How are you?
How do you make questions in English?
How long have you lived here?
How often do you go to the cinema?
How much is this dress?
How old are you?
How many people came to the meeting?

Questions with how 1

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Questions with how 2

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Questions with verbs and prepositions

When we have a question with a verb and a preposition, the preposition usually comes at the end of the question:

gave the money to my brother. > Who did you give the money to?
She comes from Madrid. > Where does she come from?​​​
They were waiting for an hour. > How long were they waiting for?
Questions with verbs and prepositions 1

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Questions with verbs and prepositions 2

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Level: intermediate

Other ways of asking questions

We sometimes use phrases like these in front of a statement to ask questions:

Do you know…?    
I wonder …    
Can you tell me …?

For Yes/No questions, we use the phrases with if:

This is the right house. > Do you know if this is the right house?
Everyone will agree. > I wonder if everyone will agree.
Mr Brown lives here. > Can you tell me if Mr Brown lives here?

For wh-questions, we use the phrases with a question word:

Do you know who lives here?
I wonder how much this dress is.
Can you tell me where she comes from?

We often use do you think …? after question words:

How much do you think this dress is?
Where do you think she comes from?
Who do you think lives here?

Indirect questions 1

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Indirect questions 2

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Negatives with the to-infinitive

 When we make a negative with the to-infinitive, we put not in front of the to-infinitive:

He told us not to make so much noise.
We were asked not to park in front of the house.

Basic level

Comments

1. Can we have two gerunds in a single sentence? e.g., "I love painting and drawings" and
2. Can we have a gerund and an infinitive in a single sentence?
3. In a sentence like "I love going for shopping"
I-subject, love-verb, going-progressive verb, for- preposition, shopping- gerund. Is this the breakdown of the sentence?

Hello Timmosky,

The answer to both 1 and 2 is yes. 3 is not idiomatic -- in the varieties of English I'm familiar with 'going for shopping' is not correct. 'going' is not a progressive verb -- the verb 'like' is followed by verbs in the -ing form. 'to go shopping' is the phrase here. Did you mean 'I love going shopping' perhaps?

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

 

In sentences like, "He likes catching fun", or "you keep making trouble", what is "likes" and "keep" functioning as because "catching" is already a verb and so is making?

Hello Timmosky,

I think the best way to think of this is that 'like' and 'keep' are both verbs that are often followed by -ing forms. You can see a longer list of these on our verbs followed by -ing clauses page.

You could also think of the verb 'like' as one that is generally followed by a noun form, so in this case the -ing form after it is called a gerund. That way of thinking doesn't work quite as well with 'keep', but the idea is similar.

Hope this helps.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Would it be wrong to have a statement like "he likes to have fun" instead of "he likes having fun" and "he adviced that I should work harder" than "he adviced working harder."

Hello Timmosky,

All of these are possible (though we spell 'advised' with an s) but there are differences in meaning.

he likes to have fun - this describes how he prefers to arrange his time

he likes having fun - this tells us that he enjoys having fun

he advised working harder - this is a common form in standard modern English

he advised me that I should work harder - this is a very formal and old-fashioned sounding form, more likely to be found in literature from the previous century than in modern speech

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

I have a question.

Who walks to school everyday?
Why does she like cats?

My question is: why in the first question "does" is not used as it the case in the second question?

Hello Lunar0506,

In the first sentence there is no 'does' because the subject of the verb 'walks' is the question word 'who'. In the second one, in contrast, the subject is 'she'. Our Question forms & subject/object questions page explains this in more detail if you'd like to learn more about it.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hello Kirk,

I would like to ask one more question.

If we ask a question about this statment:
It makes him feel angry.

Which one is the correct form? Or are they both correct?
Why it makes him feel angry?
Why does it make him feel angry?

Hello again Lunar0506,

'Why does it make him feel angry?' is the only correct one of those two sentences. The auxiliary verb can only be omitted with the question words 'what' and 'who', and then only when they are the subject of the verb. In all other cases, you must use the auxiliary verb.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

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