Simple sentences:

A simple sentence has only one clause:

The children were laughing.
John wanted a new bicycle.
All the girls are learning English.

Compound sentences:

A compound sentence has two or more clauses:

(We stayed behind) and (finished the job)
(We stayed behind) and (finished the job), then (we went home)

The clauses in a compound sentence are joined by co-ordinating conjunctions:

John shouted and everybody waved.
We looked everywhere but we couldn’t find him.
They are coming by car so they should be here soon.

The common coordinating conjunctions are:

and – but – or – nor – so – then – yet

Complex sentences:

A complex sentence has a main clause and one or more adverbial clauses. Adverbial clauses usually come after the main clause:

Her father died when she was very young
>>>
Her father died (main clause)
when (subordinating conjunction)
she was very young (adverbial clause)

She had a difficult childhood because her father died when she was very young.
>>>
She had a difficult childhood (main clause)
because (subordinating conjunction)
her father died (adverbial clause)
when (subordinating conjunction)
she was very young (adverbial clause).

Some subordinate clauses can come in front of the main clause:

Although a few snakes are dangerous most of them are quite harmless
>>>
Although (subordinating conjunction)
some snakes are dangerous (adverbial clause)
most of them are harmless (main clause).

A sentence can contain both subordinate and coordinate clauses:

Although she has always lived in France, she speaks fluent English because her mother was American and her father was Nigerian
>>>
Although (subordinating conjunction)
she has always lived in France (adverbial clause),
she speaks fluent English (main clause)
because (subordinating conjunction)
her mother was American (adverbial clause)
and (coordinating conjunction)
her father was Nigerian (adverbial clause).

There are seven types of adverbial clauses:

 

  Common conjunctions
Contrast clauses  although; though; even though; while;
Reason clauses because; since; as
Place clauses where; wherever; everywhere
Purpose clauses so that; so; because + want
Result clauses so that; so … that; such … that
Time clauses when; before; after; since; while; as; as soon as; by the time; until
Conditional clauses  if; unless; provided (that); as long as
   

Complete the sentences with conjunctions.

Match conjunctions to functions.

 

Section: 

Comments

Hello browniestuff21,

That's a lot of questions! There are no numbers next to the questions you wrote, but I'm going to give them numbers in the order they appear. There are three by my count (although there is a question mark in the last one, it's not really a question). 1 and 3 are subject questions -- 'lightbulbs' and 'ideas' are the subjects of the verb 'didn't work'. In 2, 'Benjamin Franklin' is the subject of ´have', which is the main verb. 'didn't work' is the verb of the relative pronoun 'that', which refers to 'ideas'.

Does that help? If you have any other questions, please separate them so that it's easier to know what you are referring to.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

sorry there are no parenthesis in my 2nd question. just a question

Wow that was quick. Thank you so much. I do have another questions, please see in parenthesis:

Sentence :.Thomas Edison, told his colleagues: "Of the 200 light bulbs that didn`t work, every failure told me something I was able to incoporate into the next attempt"

Is "every failure" the object?

Thank you again.

Best wishes
Alyson

Hello Alyson,

'every failure' is the subject of the verb 'told'.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hi Kirk, thank you again for your help. I have another question:

Are there any tricks to converting a verb to a noun and then to and adj?

I have the following examples:

1. Verb: imagine Noun: imagination Adj: imaginative
2. Verb: know Noun: knowlege Adj: knowledgeable
3. Verb: frighten Noun: fright Adj:frightening
4. Verb: encourage Noun: knowlege Adj: knowledgeable
5. Verb: inspire Noun: inspiration Adj: inspiring
6.Verb: tolerate Noun: tolerance Adj: tolerant
7. Verb: bore Noun:boredom Adj: boring
8. Verb: clarify Noun: clairfication Adj: clear

I think you get the point.

I appreciate your help as always.
Best wishes
Alyson

Hello again Alyson,

I'm afraid this is just something you have to learn for each word -- there is little consistency. This kind of study is generally called 'word formation', so you might do an internet search for that if you want to practise this more.

By the way, for 'encourage', the noun is 'encouragement' and adjective is 'encouraging'. I think you already knew that, but I wanted to mention it to be sure.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Thank you for your help. I have another questiion regarding the below sentence:

Are the sentences below correct?

1. I am going running today.

2. I am going dancing tonight.

or should I say

3. I am going to run today?

4. I am going to dance tonight?

5. Can you put going with another ing verb: going dancing

Best wishes
Alyson

Hello again Alyson,

All of those sentences are correct, and yes, you can use 'going' before another verb like 'running', 'dancing', 'swimming' (sports or activities). 1 and 2 use the verb 'go' before an activity word that ends in -ing, which is correct, and the present continuous to talk about a future plan. 3 and 4 use the ´be going to + infinitive' to talk about a future plan, so they essentially mean the same thing, i.e. that you have an intention or plan to do these things today or tonight.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hi Kirk
Regarding the above question I also wanted to know:

Are the sentences below correct?
1. I am going running today.
2. I am going dancing tonight.
or should I say
3. I am going to run today?
4. I am going to dance tonight?
5. Can you put going with another ing verb: going dancing

If I can use both going + another verb+ ing and going to infinitive what is the diiference?

I know going +to+ infinitive is to discuss future intention plans that are not fully planned and future intentions that are planned around time of speaking and future intentions spontaneous.

Correct?

Best wishes
Alyson

Hello Alyson,

I already answered questions 1-5 in my comment above. All of those sentences are correct -- well, if 3 and 4 are supposed to be questions, then they should begin with 'Am I going' instead of 'I am going', but otherwise they are correct.

There's no real difference in meaning between 1 and 3 or 2 and 4. I'd say 1 and 2 are more common, as we typically use an -ing form after 'go' when talking about sports or activities. Many reference grammars say that the present continuous (1 and 2) implies more certainty than 'be going to', but this difference is quite subtle and very subjective, so you can hear both forms used to communicate the same thing.

If you decide to do something right now (which sometimes is spontaneous), then 'will' is the best. For example, if just now I decide that I'm going to call you tomorrow and want to tell you that, I'd say 'I'll call you tomorrow' (not 'I'm going to call you tomorrow').

All of this is explained more on our talking about the future page.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

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