Questions and negatives:

We make questions by putting the subject after can/could:

Can I …? Can you …? Could I … Could you …? and so on.

The negative form is can’t in spoken English and cannot in written English.
We sometimes say cannot, but it is very emphatic.

The negative form of could is couldn’t in spoken English and could not in written English.
We sometimes say could not.

We use can and can’t :

  • To talk about ability:

Maria can speak four languages.
I can’t swim, but my sister can.

  • To say that something is possible or impossible:

Learning English can be difficult [= Learning English is sometimes difficult.]
Children can be very naughty [= Children are sometimes very naughty.]
It’s still light. It can’t be bedtime.

  • For requests and refusals of requests

Can I go home now?
You can go whenever you like.
You can borrow the car today, but you can’t have it tomorrow.

  • To offer to help someone:

Can I help you?
Can I carry that bag for you?

We use could and couldn’t as the past tense of can/can’t:

  • To talk about ability:

I could run very fast when I was younger.
She couldn’t get a job anywhere.

  • To say that something was possible or impossible:

Our teacher could be very strict when we were at school. [= Some teachers were very strict.]
People could starve in those days. [= People sometimes starved.]
You couldn’t use computers in the nineteenth century.

  • To make a polite request:

Could I go now please?
Could you lend me a dictionary please?

  • To make a polite offer:

Could I give you a lift?
I could carry that for you.

We use could have:

  • to show that something is possible now or was possible at some time in the past:

It’s ten o’clock. They could have arrived now.
They could have arrived hours ago.





Hello sir
What is the difference between "request" &"permition" ????
For example, when I say "can I watch the tv", I'm here requesting or asking for permition?

Thank you in advance

Hello Yasser Azizi,

Permission is when you ask someone to let you do something and it is possible for them to not let you. The person must in some way be in a position of authority - a parent, a boss, an official of some kind etc.

We make a request when we want something, but it has quite a general meaning. You can request help, for example, or request information. You can make a request of anyone; they do not need to be in a position of any authority.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

Hi , i can't understand is could for present or past ?

Hello ImYegane,

'could' has many uses. Many of them pertain more to the past than the present, but when, for example, we use 'could' in a polite question, it doesn't refer to the past.

If you have any more specific questions, please let us know.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

Can i use first form of verb with 'could have'

Hello Param,

Could you please be a bit more specific? What form precisely do you mean? If you mean 'can have', yes, you can use that, though it has different uses than 'could have'.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

I read a sentence somewhere and it was.. You could have let me know about this. So what that 'let me know' means. Is it a different kind of sentence.

You could have read(3rd form of verb) it.
You could have told me(3rd form).
You could have LET(3rd) me know.

1st form is not used anywhere.

Hello Param,

'let somebody know' means 'tell somebody'. This is an extremely common phrase in English, so it's great that you've noticed it!

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

But sir can i use it in place of second form of verb also, like in the previous sentence i wrote.. You could have let me know about this. So can i write,U could have told me. Is it a same sentence?