The basic unit of English grammar is the clause:

[An unlucky student almost lost a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000]

[when he left it in the waiting room of a London station.]

[William Brown inherited the 1698 Stradivarius violin from his mother]

[and had just had it valued by a London dealer at £180,000.]

Clauses are made up of phrases:

[An unlucky student] + [almost lost] + [a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000]

[when] + [he] + [left] + [it] + [in the waiting room of a London station.]

[William Brown] + [inherited] + [the 1698 Stradivarius violin] + [from his mother]

[and] [had just had it valued] + [by a London dealer] + [at £180,000.]

We can join two or more clauses together to make sentences.

An unlucky student almost lost a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000 when he left it in the waiting room of a London station.

William Brown inherited the 1698 Stradivarius violin from his mother and had just had it valued by a London dealer at £180,000.


 

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Comments

Hello,

''Your branch is being clause,'' John said
Michael asked ''On whom's authority?''

I'm just a little confused that ''whose'' is not used instead. Maybe because the object comes first which is ''whom'' and the authority is ''whom's''

Can future simple used like present simple to indicate actions happening one after another(just in the future of course)?

Thank you very much

Hello MCWSL,

We prefer not to comment on examples from outside of our own pages as we have no way of knowing where they are from, who produced them, what their context is and if they are intended to be non-standard or to have some kind of rhetorical function. To me this appears simply incorrect, but I have no idea of its source and so cannot comment on it.

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Hello,

''If you would have asked it, then you would know''

Can would have p.p change past perfect in informal English?

''If you would use discretion, I would appreciate it''

or here ''used?''

Thank you

Hello JamlMakav,

Some people use 'would have' + past participle in this way, but it is not considered standard. I'd encourage you not to use it -- instead use either 'had asked' or 'asked' (for the first) or 'used' (for the second).

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hello :
could you please help me to understand structure of these clause
It is easy to monitor the activities being preformed
Majority work well when the decision being made affect large numbers of people

. What's the type of this clause (being + past p ) ? I always read sentence like this in textbooks

Hello nkmg,

In sentences like this, the words 'which' and some form of 'be' have been omitted. In other words, the full version of the first phrase is 'activities which are being performed' and the full version of the second is 'decision which is being made'. This kind of reduced relative clause is fairly common and is a question of style, i.e. you can always use the full version.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hello LearningEnlgish team,

Is there any change to simplify past perfect to past simple and have the same meaning in the sentence: ''I would take the thing and then you would take the thing I had taken?'' For example,

''I took/ had taken my keys before you came home''

Using past perfect in the sentence above, we just emphasize the action happening before coming, but past perfect isn't necessary here since it's very clear. Therefore, past simple is perfectly fine.

Thanks.

Hello JakiGeh,

The past perfect is more emphatic, but the past simple is also possible and quite clear, as you say. Good work!

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hello,

Jane asked, ''Did you take the candy, John?''
''No,'' he replied. ''Why would I take it?''

If taking is in the past, shouldn't John say ''why would I have taken it?''
I often find this kind of construction.

Dave said, ''One of these days. the phone's gonna ring (and) I'll pick it up (and) she'll talk and she'll tell why she left''

Can future simple be used like present simple when actions are one after another (just in the future of course)?

Thank you

Hello MCWSL,

Both 'would' and 'would have' are possible here. 'Why would I take it?' has a general meaning, referencing the speaker's typical or normal behaviour. 'Why would I have taken it?' describes one particular instance.

This kind of reference to the general is not unusual in moral quandries. It has a sense of 'I'm not that kind of person'.

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

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