The basic unit of English grammar is the clause:

[An unlucky student almost lost a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000]

[when he left it in the waiting room of a London station.]

[William Brown inherited the 1698 Stradivarius violin from his mother]

[and had just had it valued by a London dealer at £180,000.]

Clauses are made up of phrases:

[An unlucky student] + [almost lost] + [a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000]

[when] + [he] + [left] + [it] + [in the waiting room of a London station.]

[William Brown] + [inherited] + [the 1698 Stradivarius violin] + [from his mother]

[and] [had just had it valued] + [by a London dealer] + [at £180,000.]

We can join two or more clauses together to make sentences.

An unlucky student almost lost a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000 when he left it in the waiting room of a London station.

William Brown inherited the 1698 Stradivarius violin from his mother and had just had it valued by a London dealer at £180,000.


 

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Comments

Hello angie2,

We generally use will to talk about decisions made at the time of speaking rather than plans or intentions which we have considered in advance. Thus, to ask about when the decision was taken would be rather strange. A more natural conversation would be as follows:

I'm going to move to another country (or I'm moving to another country(

Oh really? When did you decide that?

 

The past simple is appropriate rather than the present perfect because the decision is a completed action in the past. You could use the present perfect with a different verb which expresses an ongoing process:

Oh really? How long have you been planning that?

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Hi angie,

You can use 'know', but people often use 'speak'. People also often say 'I don't speak a word of Italian' or 'I don't speak any Italian'.

The word 'thing' has so many uses I can't possibly explain them all! Have you looked it up in the dictionary (follow the link)? I'd especially recommend reading the example sentences to get a sense for how it is used. If you have a more specific question, please don't hesitate to ask us.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hello,
I would like to ask a question;
When I send a resume by email and I would also like to write;
1)If you need further information, I will be glad to send you or to give you? Which one is the correct verb?
2)If I want to ask for an email address in order to send an email is it correct to say
Is there an email so I can contact you? Is this sentence correct?
Thank you in advanced

Helo angie2,

In answer to your first question, I think the best way to express it is as follows:

If you need any further information, I will (of course) be glad to provide it. 

If you need any further information, I will (of course) be glad to send it.

Or for a more formal style:

Should you need any further information, I will...

 

The simplest way to ask for an email address is to say:

Do you have a contact email address?

Could you give me a contact email address?

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Hello,
I would like to ask a question; If it is a sunny day,and it is too hot we say:
.1It is hot, let's stand on the shade or
It is too hot, let's stand on the shadow ?
2.I try to find a shade or shadow for you to stand
Thank you in advanced

Hello angie2,

The phrase for this situation is Let's stand in the shade.

You could also say Let's find some shade (to stand in).

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Hello,

I have a question about the word "when". I have read that it can be a conjunction or a relative adverb (either way it joins two clauses together). Can I ask how do I differentiate between the two?

A few sample sentences are:
1) He graduated from school when he was 22 years old.
2) The risk of theft is higher when you do not install a car alarm system.
3) I remember the day when we first met.

I have read quite a bit online but I'm really lost, so I will be grateful if you can enlighten me on this.

Thanks!

Hello Leoz,

A relative adverb introduces a relative clause, and this is a clause which tells us more about a noun or noun phrase in the preceding clause. One way to distinguish when as a relative adverb from when as a conjunction is to try to replace it with the relative pronoun which and a preposition:

I remember the day when / on which we first met.

You cannot do this for the first two sentences, which tells you that when is a conjunction in those examples. In those examples, when introduces a condition rather than some extra information about a noun/noun phrase.

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Hi Peter,

Thanks for explaining this to me. It is still difficult for me to differentiate whether the following clause is a relative clause or not. However, it seems that when the second clause modifies/ give more information about a noun phrase, it is a conjunction. When the second clause modifies/ give more information about the verb, it is a relative adverb.

For eg.

1) The risk is higher when you don't install a car alarm system (in this case, the following clause is giving more information/ specifying why the risk is *higher, therefore it's a relative adverb)

2) There is a risk when you don't install a car alarm system (in this case, it should be a conjunction?)

Thanks,
Leoz

Hi Leoz,

It is a complex area. I'm not sure why you would need to label the word one or the other, however, as knowing the label to apply is really a question of language analysis (linguistics) rather than language learning or language use. This really falls outside of the scope of LearnEnglish.

You can find a discussion of the question on this site, which is a site devoted to linguistics rather than language learning.

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

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