Simple sentences:

A simple sentence has only one clause:

The children were laughing.
John wanted a new bicycle.
All the girls are learning English.

Compound sentences:

A compound sentence has two or more clauses:

(We stayed behind) and (finished the job)
(We stayed behind) and (finished the job), then (we went home)

The clauses in a compound sentence are joined by co-ordinating conjunctions:

John shouted and everybody waved.
We looked everywhere but we couldn’t find him.
They are coming by car so they should be here soon.

The common coordinating conjunctions are:

and – but – or – nor – so – then – yet

Complex sentences:

A complex sentence has a main clause and one or more adverbial clauses. Adverbial clauses usually come after the main clause:

Her father died when she was very young
>>>
Her father died (main clause)
when (subordinating conjunction)
she was very young (adverbial clause)

She had a difficult childhood because her father died when she was very young.
>>>
She had a difficult childhood (main clause)
because (subordinating conjunction)
her father died (adverbial clause)
when (subordinating conjunction)
she was very young (adverbial clause).

Some subordinate clauses can come in front of the main clause:

Although a few snakes are dangerous most of them are quite harmless
>>>
Although (subordinating conjunction)
some snakes are dangerous (adverbial clause)
most of them are harmless (main clause).

A sentence can contain both subordinate and coordinate clauses:

Although she has always lived in France, she speaks fluent English because her mother was American and her father was Nigerian
>>>
Although (subordinating conjunction)
she has always lived in France (adverbial clause),
she speaks fluent English (main clause)
because (subordinating conjunction)
her mother was American (adverbial clause)
and (coordinating conjunction)
her father was Nigerian (adverbial clause).

There are seven types of adverbial clauses:

 

  Common conjunctions
Contrast clauses  although; though; even though; while;
Reason clauses because; since; as
Place clauses where; wherever; everywhere
Purpose clauses so that; so; because + want
Result clauses so that; so … that; such … that
Time clauses when; before; after; since; while; as; as soon as; by the time; until
Conditional clauses  if; unless; provided (that); as long as
   

Complete the sentences with conjunctions.

Match conjunctions to functions.

 

Section: 

Comments

Hello skylark,
In both of these sentences the correct verb form is 'are'. In English when we have two subjects (... and ...) we treat it as 'they' and the verb is plural (and so is the noun, so we would say 'You and I are friends').
There's one other point to remember about this. When the subjects are pronouns, if we use 'I' as one of the pronouns then it is always the second one:
'He and I are going out' not 'I and he...'.
If we want to put it the other way round then we use what are usually object pronouns:
'Me and him are going out' not 'Him and me...'.
This is quite a colloquial and informal way to speak and some people consider it poor style. It's not unusual to hear it in Britain, however.
I hope that helps you.
Best wishes,
 
Peter
The LearnEnglish Team

First time I visited your site, it seems very interesting and useful but I don't find any pronunciation lesson...wish you'll help me

Hello 1910poojag,
Welcome to LearnEnglish!  I'm glad you like it.
Pronunciation is a very big area and your question is quite general!  Is there any particular aspect of pronunciation that you would like help with?
You can find quite a lot of pronunciation activities on LearnEnglish if you use the search window on the right of the page.  Just type in what you're looking for ("sounds", "connected speech", "stress" etc.) and you should find some useful exercises.
A useful page for you might be this one, all about the British Council app 'Sounds Right' (click).  You can find an interactive (and downloadable) phonemic chart there to help you with sounds.
I hope these suggestions help you.  If there's a specific element of pronunciation that you'd like help with please let us know.
Best wishes,
 
Peter
The LearnEnglish Team

Grammar exercises aren't working....
 

Hello Ayesha,
They work OK for me, sorry to hear you are having problems. Can you please give us more information? Do you see an error message? What web browser are you using?
Best wishes,
Adam
The LearnEnglish Team

Hello Adam,

I am Md. Sheikh Hasmatullah. I just want to know that how can I improve my accent and pronunciation. I am from India  and working as a web analyst for an IT company. Now, I have to handle our US clients. I have to talk to them by phone so I need help from your side to improve my accent and pronunciation. Please give advice for the same.

Thank you
Md Sheikh Hasmatullah
 

Dear Sheik,
So your clients are having problems understanding what you say? This isn't always an easy thing to fix by yourself, but there are some approaches that will help.
Firstly, make sure you are comfortable asking if you were understood. Be ready to ask people to repeat back to you what you just said to them. Secondly, if someone doesn't understand you, explain what you said to them in a different way, pausing regularly to check their understanding. Finally, try to notice patterns in the words that your clients don't understand. Perhaps there is a particular sound which is common to all the words or it might be the word stress.
Best wishes,
Adam
The LearnEnglish Team

Thanks for the exercises. Please tell me more the same things. I 'd like to practise more and more.

Hello Adam
Not sure if there are still problems with the server... - I can't access the printer friendly version of the exercises on this (conjunctions) page.
Maybe it'll be different when I try tomorrow.
Cheers,
Tom

Hello Tom!
 
I'm sorry, but this page doesn't currently have printer-friendly versions of the exercises. Like most of our grammar pages, only the information is available to print out as a reference. Sorry about that, but I hope you find the information useful anyway.
 
Regards
 
Jeremy Bee
The LearnEnglish Team

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