The basic unit of English grammar is the clause:

[An unlucky student almost lost a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000]

[when he left it in the waiting room of a London station.]

[William Brown inherited the 1698 Stradivarius violin from his mother]

[and had just had it valued by a London dealer at £180,000.]

Clauses are made up of phrases:

[An unlucky student] + [almost lost] + [a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000]

[when] + [he] + [left] + [it] + [in the waiting room of a London station.]

[William Brown] + [inherited] + [the 1698 Stradivarius violin] + [from his mother]

[and] [had just had it valued] + [by a London dealer] + [at £180,000.]

We can join two or more clauses together to make sentences.

An unlucky student almost lost a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000 when he left it in the waiting room of a London station.

William Brown inherited the 1698 Stradivarius violin from his mother and had just had it valued by a London dealer at £180,000.




Sir I am confused

Seeing the crowd , he ran away.
What kind of phrase is it (seeing the crowd)
Adverb phrase?
Adjective phrase?

Taking aim, Hunter killed the lion .

Taking aim - what kind of phrase is this?
Adverb phrase or Adjective phrase?

How does it function?
Can a participle phrase (seeing the crowd) function as an adverb phrase?

Hello Mdjanfid,

Participle phrases/clauses (there is some debate as to how best to describe them) have an adverbial function. We have a page about these which you can find here and I think that will clarify things for you - please post again on that page if you still have questions.

It's important not to confuse reduced relative clauses, which are adjectival and describe a noun, with participle clauses, which are adverbial and provide information about an action (time, result, reason or condition).

The man (who is) eating an apple is my friend. [a reduced relative clause describing 'the man']

Eating an apple, Paul found it difficult to speak. [a participle clause giving the reason for the difficulty]



The LearnEnglish Tea

Eating an apple
Is adverb phrase or not.

Hello Mdjangid,

As Peter explains above, in the sentence 'Eating an apple, Paul found it difficult to speak.', 'Eating an apple' is a participle clause with an adverbial function.

Some might say that makes it an adverb phrase whereas might say that it is not, but I'm afraid this kind of discussion is not one we're going to enter into.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

I've all the things about it what I found on net, books, some websites
And they say
A participle phrase ALWAYS functions as an adjective clause.
But I have a book in which I found .
Seeing the crowd , He ran away. In the sentence SEEING THE CROWD is adverb phrase
That's why I was confused.
I think it depends on the sentence.
If the phrase modifies the Noun . Then it is adjective clause
And if modifies the verb and shows the reason , time etc
Then it is an adverb phrase
Like in the above sentence we can see.
It shows the reason of his running away .

Beaming with joy , her fave lit up the room
Beaming with joy it is an adjective phrase.
Because it qualifies the noun Face.

Sir problem is this...
I searched a lot and everywhere.
But I didn't find the participle phrase functions as a n Adverb phrase.
So I asked here.
But You are also not sure of it.
Then what to do and where to ask about it.

Please clarify. So that I can clear up my doubt.
Be sure first.
And then answer. Please

Hello Mdjangid,

I'm afraid I'm not sure what your question is here. We have many examples of participle clauses/phrases functioning as adverbs on our page on that topic, which you can find here:


We don't comment on opinions found elsewhere, whether in books or from teachers but we are happy to answer direct questions about the language.



The LearnEnglish Team


''It important she be doing this task properly.''
''Don't be doing this!''

Is it correct to use a continuous aspect after subjunctive to emphasize continuation? And is it correct to use it too in imperative for the same purpose as in the second sentence?

Thank you very muchc

Hello JakiGeh,

In modern English we use a normal finite verb form after and introductory it + adjective. Continuous forms are fine:

It is good (that) he is taking extra English lessons.

It is important (that) she gets a chance to relax.


Imperatives are not usually found in continuous forms so 'Don't do...' would be the correct form here. In some dialects a continuous form can be used in informal contexts, but this is a non-standard form, I would say:

Don't think you can change my mind.

Don't be thinking you can change my mind.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

please help me. i'm really confused about it...
what's the difference between 'motivated from' and 'motivated by'


The phrase 'motivated from' is quite rare and is used only in a few phrases, I believe. These include 'motivated from within' and 'motivated from a desire to...'

The phrase 'motivated by' is much more common and can be used to describe any source of motivation.

If you have come across a use of 'motivated from' which seems different from those described above then feel free to post it and we will be happy to comment on it.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team