Some verbs are followed by an adjective phrase. The adjective phrase is called the complement:


Noun phrase (Subject) Verb phrase Adjective phrase (complement)
This soup
The milk
am feeling
has gone
very happy

This pattern is N + V + Adj (noun + verb + adjective phrase).

These verbs are called link verbs.

Some link verbs (for example be; become; seem) can have a noun phrase as a complement:


Noun phrase (Subject) Verb phrase Noun phrase (complement)
Our neighbour
a strange man
a geologist
a nice girl

This pattern is N + V + N (noun + verb + noun).




The cost of petrol is going up. Is it N+V+ADJ form?
Here the answer is N+V.
My understanding is
The cost of petrol = N
is going = v
up = adj.
Can you help me to clear this doubt?

Hi alexcthomas,

I'm afraid not. The word 'up' here is an adverb, not an adjective, and creates the phrasal verb 'go up' (meaning 'increase'). Therefore of the three alternatives N+V is the best answer.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

hi sir may I know how to use with in sentences

Hi princessacenas,

I'm afraid this is rather too broad a question for us to answer in the comments section! 'With' is used in many ways but a good dictionary will provide a list with examples. For example, here is the Cambridge Dictionary entry for with:


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

Hello LearnEnglish Team.
Is the sentence, "Most of us have lots of friends." transitive or intransitive?

Hello, I wanted to ask about adjectives which are past participle form. I do not know when and how they are used.
Thank you.

Hello MCWSL,

As far as I know, there is no special rule or guideline that explains how they are used in general. I'm afraid that's not much help, but let me suggest looking them up in the Cambridge Dictionary, where you can see example sentences to get an idea of how they are typically used. 

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

Please explain the difference between a complement and an adverbial... I am little bit confused in detecting those.

Hello vnchaithanya,

A complement in grammar is any word or phrase which completes the meaning of a subject, object or verb. There are subject complements, object complements and verb complements. You can find more information on these here.

Adverbials are words or phrases which have an adverbial function in the sentence, telling us how, where, when (etc) an event took place, or giving us information about the speaker's attitude to what they are describing. You can find more information on these here.

Note that these are not mutually exclusive concepts. An adverbial phrase can function as a complement in the sentence.

Best wishes,



The LearnEnglish Team