relative clauses

 

1. The relative pronouns:

The relative pronouns are:
 

Subject  Object  Possessive
who whom, who whose
which which whose
that that  


We use who and whom for people, and which for things.
We use that for people or things.

We use relative pronouns to introduce relative clauses, which tell us more about people and things.

2. Relative clauses to postmodify a noun 

We use relative clauses to postmodify a noun - to make clear which person or thing we are talking about. In these clauses we can have the relative pronoun who, which, whose or that

  • as subject (see Clauses Sentences and Phrases)

Isn’t that the woman who lives across the road from you?
The police said the accident that happened last night was unavoidable
The newspaper reported that the tiger which killed its keeper has been put down.

WARNING:
The relative pronoun is the subject of the clause.
We do not repeat the subject:

*The woman who [she] lives across the road…
*The tiger which [it] killed its keeper …

  • as object of a clause (see Clauses, Sentences and Phrases)

Have you seen those people who we met on holiday?
You shouldn’t believe everything that you read in the newspaper.
The house that we rented in London was fully furnished.
The food was definitely the thing which I enjoyed most about our holiday.

- Sometimes we use whom instead of who when the relative pronoun is the object:

Have you seen those people whom we met on holiday?

- When the relative pronoun is object of its clause we sometimes leave it out:

Have you seen those people we met on holiday?
You shouldn’t believe everything you read in the newspaper.
The house we rented in London was fully furnished.
The food was definitely the thing I enjoyed most about our holiday.

WARNING:
The relative pronoun is the object of the clause.
We do not repeat the object:

Have you seen those people who we met [them] on holiday?
The house that we rented [it] in London was fully furnished.
The food was definitely the thing I enjoyed [it] most about our holiday.

  • as object of a preposition. When the relative pronoun is the object of a preposition we usually put the preposition after the verb.:

You were talking to a woman >>> Who was the woman who you were talking to?
My parents live in that house >>> That’s the house that my parents live in.
You were talking about a book. I haven’t read it. >>> I haven’t read the book which you were talking about.

- When the relative pronoun is the object of a preposition we usually leave it out:

Who was the woman you were talking to?
That’s the house my parents live in.

- Sometimes we use whom instead of who:

Who was that woman whom you were talking about.

- When we use whom or which the preposition sometimes comes at the beginning of the clause:

I haven’t read the book about which you were talking.

- We can use the possessive form, whose, in a relative clause:

I always forget that woman’s name >>> That’s the woman whose name I always forget.
I met a man whose brother works in Moscow.

3. Times and places

We also use when with times and where with places to make it clear which time or place we are talking about:

England won the world cup in 1996. It was the year when we got married.
I remember my twentieth birthday. It was the day when the tsunami happened.
Do you remember the place where we caught the train?
Stratford-upon-Avon is the town where Shakespeare was born.

... but we can leave out the word when:

England won the world cup in 1996. It was the year we got married.
I remember my twentieth birthday. It was the day the tsunami happened.

4. Giving additional information

 We use who, whom, whose, and which (but not that) in relative clauses to tell us more about a person or thing.

  • as subject (see Clauses, Sentences and Phrases)

My uncle, who was born in Hong Kong, lived most of his life overseas.
I have just read Orwell’s 1984, which is one of the most frightening books ever written.

WARNING:
The relative pronoun is the subject of the clause.
We do not repeat the subject:

My uncle, who [he] was born in Hong Kong, lived most of his life overseas.
I have just read Orwell’s 1984, which [it] is one of the most frightening books ever written.

  • as object (see Clauses, Sentences and Phrases)

We saw the latest Harry Potter film, which we really enjoyed.
My favourite actor is Marlon Brando, who I saw in “On the Waterfront”.

- we can use whom instead of who as object:

My favourite actor was Marlon Brando, whom I saw in “On the Waterfront”.

WARNING:
The relative pronoun is the object of the clause.
We do not repeat the object:

We saw the latest Harry Potter film, which we really enjoyed [it].
My favourite actor is Marlon Brando, who I saw [him] in “On the Waterfront”.

  • as object of a clause :

He finally met Paul McCartney, whom he had always admired.
We are going back to Venice, which we first visited thirty years ago.

We can also use who as the object.

He finally met Paul McCartney, who he had always admired.

WARNING:
The relative pronoun is the object of the clause.
We do not repeat the object:

He finally met Paul McCartney, whom he had always admired [him].
We are going back to Venice, which we first visited [it] thirty years ago.

  • as object of a preposition:

He decided to telephone Mrs. Jackson, who he had read about in the newspaper.
That’s the programme which we listened to last night.

- We sometimes use whom instead of who:

He decided to telephone Mrs. Jackson, whom he had read about in the newspaper.

- The preposition sometimes comes in front of the relative pronoun whom or which:

He decided to telephone Mrs. Jackson, about whom he had read in the newspaper.
That’s the programme to which we listened last night.

5.  Quantifiers and numbers with relative pronouns

 We often use quantifiers and numbers with relative pronouns:

many of whom - most of whom - one of which - none of whom
some of which - lots of whom - two of which - etc.

We can use them as subject, object or object of a preposition.

She has three brothers two of whom are in the army.
I read three books last week, one of which I really enjoyed.
There were some good programmes on the radio, none of which I listened to.

6. Using  "which" to give more information

We often use the relative pronoun which to say something about a clause:

He was usually late, which always annoyed his father.
We’ve missed our train, which means we may be late.

 

Rearrange the parts to make sentences.

Match the sentence halves.

Comments

Hi English Team,
I'm so confused about this question, I understand but I don't know how to explain it to my friends
You put the keys somewhere= clause 1; Show me the place= clause 2. and the answer is 'Show me the place where you put the keys'

and all my friends know is that 'clause 1' will always put at the beginning of the sentence.
e.g : This is the village= clause 1; I was born here= clause 2. and the answer is 'This is the village where I was born.'

my questions are how can 'clause 2' put at the beginning of the sentence? in what moment 'clause 2' can put at the beginning of the sentence? can I change 'clause 1' into 'Show me the place' and 'clause 2' into 'You put the keys somewhere', so the answer will be 'Show me the place where you put the keys'

thanks a lot for helping me.

Hi There....
You were talking about a book. I haven’t read it. >>> I haven’t read the book which you were talking about.
that is an example you gave to us, and I just want to know, can the answer turn into 'You were talking about a book which I haven't read'?

Hello nick,

Your version of the answer is grammatically correct, but it places a bit more emphasis on what 'you' were doing, whereas the first version of the answer places more emphasis on 'I' not having read the book. The best answer to use really depends on which one has the emphasis you want to make.

I hope this helps.

Best wishes,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hello teachers,

I wonder the verb after " Who " as below sentence is being used right or not?
" For those who care about us ".
I think the verb after relative pronouns belong to the subject of sentence. In this case, it belongs to the subject " those ". Am i right? Please help me explaint more!

Thanks and best regard,
Thao

Hello Thao,

The verb agrees with the relative pronoun ('who'), which agrees with the subject or object in the first clause (here, 'those'). As 'those' has a plural meaning, the verb agrees with this.

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Good day. I was wondering if this sentence is correct.

Sarah passed the test last week, which made me happy.

One of my professors said this is correct, while another says this is incorrect since the relative pronoun is being referred to the antecedent "last week".

What is your take?

Thank you.

Agent_009

Hello 009,

Perhaps your teacher was referring to some other use of 'which'; the sentence you ask about looks correct to me. 'which' can be used to refer to a previous clause, which is the case here.

Best regards,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

hi English team,
1. she has three brothers two of whom are in the army.
2. she has three brothers two of them are in the army.
is the second sentence correct too? if so which one is recommended and why?

thanks a lot,
Mohsen

Hello asdr5678,

First of all, 'she' should be capitalised ('She') in both sentences. 1 is correct, though it should have a comma after 'brothers', as the second clause is dependent. 2 is not correct because there are two independent clauses that are not joined in any way. The easiest way to remedy this would probably be to insert ', and' after 'brothers'.

Best regards,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

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