reporting: reports and summaries

 

Many teachers and learners think that tense forms in reported speech are complex.

In fact, "reported speech" follows exactly the same rules as the rest of the language.

1. When we report what people say or think we use:

  • clauses with that:

Everybody knew that it was Henry’s birthday tomorrow.
She explained that she would do as much as she could to help.

but we can leave out the word that:

Everybody knew it was Henry’s birthday tomorrow.
She explained she would do as much as she could to help.

  • wh-clauses (see Wh-clauses) and clauses with if (see note in Wh-Clauses)

He was asked what he had been doing the previous night.
She explained why she went by train rather than by car.

  • to-infinitives:

We all agreed to do as much as we could.
Who told you to come?

2. We very rarely try to report exactly what someone has said. We usually give a summary:

Mary: Oh dear, we’ve been walking for hours. I am exhausted. I don’t think I can go any further. I really need to stop for a rest.
Peter: Don’t worry. I’m not surprised that you’re tired. I’m tired too. I’ll tell you what. I’ll see if I can find a place to sit down, and then we can stop and have our picnic.
>>>
When Mary complained that she was tired out after walking so far, Peter said they could stop for a picnic.

3. Tense forms in reports and summaries.

When we are reporting what people say or think in English we need to remember:

  • that the tense forms in reports and summaries are the same as in the rest of the language:
This is a letter that Andrew Brown wrote ten years ago:

I am twenty-two years old and I am at University studying engineering. I take my final exams next month and I will finish university in July.

I want to take a year off and travel round the world. I will need to make some money while I am travelling so I would like to learn to teach English as a second language so that I can make some money while I am abroad. A friend of mine has recommended your course very highly. She also gave me some details, but I would like to ask a few more questions.

What courses do you have in the summer and when do they start? How much do the courses cost? Is there an examination at the end?

I look forward to hearing from you.

Regards,

Andrew Brown.

 If you were telling a story about Andrew might write something like this.:
When Andrew was 22 he was an engineering student in his last month at the university. He wanted to travel abroad after he had finished his course at the university, but he would need to earn some money while he was abroad so he wanted to learn to teach English as a foreign language. A friend had recommended a course but Andrew needed more information. So he wrote to the school and asked them when their courses started and how much they were. He also wanted to know if there was an examination at the end of the course.

You would use past tense forms to talk about something that happened ten years ago.

If you were reporting or summarising what Andrew wrote you might start off by saying:

Andrew told me that when he was 22 he was an engineering student in his last month…

... and you could go on in the same way. You would use past tense forms to talk about something which happened ten years ago. So tense forms in reports and summaries in English are the same as in the rest of the language.

  • Sometimes you have to choose between a past tense form and a present tense form.

    If you are talking about the past but you mention something that is still true you could use a present tense form to show you agree that it is true:

John said he had stayed at the Shangri-la because it is the most comfortable hotel in town.
Mary said she enjoyed the film because Robert de Niro is her favourite actor.
Helen said she loves visiting New York.

... or a past tense form:

John said he had stayed at the Shangri-la because it was the most comfortable hotel in town.
Mary said she enjoyed the film because Robert de Niro was her favourite actor.
Helen said she loved visiting New York,

  • If we are talking about something that everybody knows is true we normally use a present tense:

Michael said he had always wanted to climb Everest because it is the highest mountain in the world.
Mary said she loved visiting New York because it is such an exciting city.

4.  to-infinitives in reports and summaries:

We often use the to-infinitive after verbs of thinking and feeling to report or summarise actions:

decide - hope - intend

  • “I think I will start all over again” >>>
    He decided to start all over again.
  • “I am going to write to the newspaper about it” >>>
    She intended to write to the newspaper about it.

… and verbs of saying:

agree - promise - refuse

  • “I can do the shopping for you if you like” >>>
    He agreed to do the shopping for me.
  • I’m sorry. I would love to help you but I’m afraid I can’t >>>
    She refused to help me.

After some verbs we use a direct object and the infinitive (see verbs followed by infinitive):

advise - ask - encourage - invite - order - remind - tell - warn -
expect - intend - want - would like - would prefer

  • “I think you should turn the lights out now” >>>
    She reminded me to turn the lights out.
  • “Be very careful, children. The sea can be very dangerous so please don’t go in the water.” >>>
    She warned the children not to go in the water.


 

Match the sentences with the reports/summaries.

Comments

Hi,would you be kind enough to clarify the following for me.
Direct: "I don't help you at the next exam"
Indirect: She said that she didn't help me at the next exam.
Isn't it wrong to report the above sentence that way as "I don't help you at the next exam" refers to future?

Hi Kumara99,
Please see my comment below, where I indicate that "I don't help you" does not refer to the future - in fact, it is not standard English.
If you want to refer to the future, you can say "I won't help you" or "I'm not going to help you" or "I'm not helping you" - see the links to the pages in my comment for an explanation.
A report of one of these sentences referring to the future in indirect speech would be "She said that she wouldn't help me".
Best wishes,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hi everybody! Can I ask a question? how we report this "I don't give you any help at the exam" Doesn't this refer to future and isn't it wrong to say" He said that he didn't help me at the exam?
 

Hi Kumara99,
I'm not sure I understand, because "I don't give you any help at the exam" does not refer to the future. You might want to review our pages on talking about the present and talking about the future for more information on this.
"He said that he didn't help me at the exam" is grammatically correct and refers to the past.
If I've misunderstood you, please let me know and ask again!
Best wishes,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hi, Mr. Kirk
Thanks a lot for your pain.
I'd be much more grateful to you, would be kind enough to give a further comment on the same, that is
In your lesson talking about the future' you say
"when we know the future we use simple present tense"

Hi Kumara99,
On our talking about the future page, that sentence tries to explain the fact that, in English, we often use a present tense to speak about the future. That can seem a bit strange, but it's what we do.
If you have more questions about talking about the future, please don't hesitate to ask, but please ask your questions on the talking about the future page so that other users can benefit from your questions and our answers.
Thanks for your collaboration.
Best wishes,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hello,

What about the form be + going to + inf.

Please let me know where to find rules covering that.

Thanks.

Hello tarek!
 
I'm sorry, I'm not quite sure I understand your question. Do you mean rules for using that in reported speech? That would be the same as discussed here - use the past tense:
 
He said he was going to do it.
 
If you want to know about the normal use of be+ going to + inf, take a look at our page on talking about the future.
 
Hope that helps!
 
Jeremy Bee
The LearnEnglish Team
 
 

Please let me know where to find rules covering verb tense agreement between main clause and the subordinating clause in a complex sentence.  Thanks in advance.

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