The basic unit of English grammar is the clause:

[An unlucky student almost lost a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000]

[when he left it in the waiting room of a London station.]

[William Brown inherited the 1698 Stradivarius violin from his mother]

[and had just had it valued by a London dealer at £180,000.]

Clauses are made up of phrases:

[An unlucky student] + [almost lost] + [a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000]

[when] + [he] + [left] + [it] + [in the waiting room of a London station.]

[William Brown] + [inherited] + [the 1698 Stradivarius violin] + [from his mother]

[and] [had just had it valued] + [by a London dealer] + [at £180,000.]

We can join two or more clauses together to make sentences.

An unlucky student almost lost a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000 when he left it in the waiting room of a London station.

William Brown inherited the 1698 Stradivarius violin from his mother and had just had it valued by a London dealer at £180,000.


 

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Comments

Hello raj jk,

The correct form would be:

Who has the correct answer? Raise your hands.

or

Who got it right? Raise your hands.

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

thank you very much

Hello,

''After the class, take the quiz to practice what you've learned.''

Why is present perfect used in subordinate clause?

''He learns that he has been accused of being a Communist because he attended an antiwar meeting in his college years, a meeting he claims he only attended to impress a girl.''

Is '' a meeting he claims...'' an appositive phrase? In other words, does it rename meeting but not decribes it. And why does the gerund have the determiner? We don't normally use it and don't say: ''A studying is good for you.''

Thank you.

Hello JamlMakav,

Presumably, 'what you've learned' refers to what you've learned in class, which was in the very recent past and could be considered connected to the time when you take the quiz. This is an appropriate situation to use the present perfect in. But you could also use the past simple ('what you learned') if you preferred - it would show that you see the class time and quiz time as different times.

'meeting' is not a gerund here, but rather a normal noun - see this Cambridge Dictionary entry. Yes, I'd say that phrase is in apposition with the noun phrase 'an antiwar meeting' earlier in the sentence.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

hello team
An IT course is going to start
Advanced level is aimed by this course ( they decided to aim A/L)
how can we say this idea in one sentence?
here the suggestions

1.An A/L aimed IT course is going to start
2.An IT course that aimed A/L is going to start
3.An IT course that have aimed A/L is going to start

there is no adjective called "aimed" in any dictionary
so no.1 is not sure but I've seen many sentence like that

the other problem is ..
this is future idea but we have to use past tense to say one idea in it
please could you explain this clearly ?

I'm happy to know that which is the more formal

Hello raj jk,

We would use a passive form in a relative clause ('...which is aimed at...'), but would reduce this (to just '...aimed at...').

I think 'will' or the present simple would be used rather than 'going to' if the dates for the course are already known. Thus I think the best way to phrase this would be as follows:

An IT course aimed at advanced level participants starts on/at [date]

An IT course aimed at advanced level participants will start on/at [date]

There is no past tense here. The past participle ('aimed') is used as part of a passive construction ('...which is aimed at...').

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

thanks peter
but
how do you omit " which is" ?
in passive relative clauses can we omit pronoun+be verb?

no reply?
It seems I made you angry?
I'm sorry!

Hello raj jk.

We deal with many questions every day and it's not possible for us to have extended conversations with individual users and to answer multiple questions on particular examples. We're not angry, but we have limited time. To investigate this kind of matter fully would need a lesson, not a few comments on the page, so that we could show how, why and when a relative clause can be reduced, and when it cannot, and that's not possible for us with so many users to help and questions to answer every day.

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Happy new year to LearnEnglish team!!!!

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