The basic unit of English grammar is the clause:

[An unlucky student almost lost a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000]

[when he left it in the waiting room of a London station.]

[William Brown inherited the 1698 Stradivarius violin from his mother]

[and had just had it valued by a London dealer at £180,000.]

Clauses are made up of phrases:

[An unlucky student] + [almost lost] + [a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000]

[when] + [he] + [left] + [it] + [in the waiting room of a London station.]

[William Brown] + [inherited] + [the 1698 Stradivarius violin] + [from his mother]

[and] [had just had it valued] + [by a London dealer] + [at £180,000.]

We can join two or more clauses together to make sentences.

An unlucky student almost lost a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000 when he left it in the waiting room of a London station.

William Brown inherited the 1698 Stradivarius violin from his mother and had just had it valued by a London dealer at £180,000.


 

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Comments

Hello ritesh46,

'madam' is quite formal and is usually used to address a woman who is older or of a higher rank than you. I don't know what sort of contexts you might need to use this word in, but if you're just speaking informally with a young woman you know or have just met, 'madam' is most likely not appropriate.

'ma'am' comes from 'madam'. It's slightly less formal, but is still probaby too formal for what you seem to be describing.

Of these three terms, 'Miss' would probably the best term for you to use, but please know that many people regard 'Miss' as old-fashioned or even sexist nowadays, so some women might not like it. Still, it's clearly better than the other two options. 'Ms' tends to be used more than 'Miss' nowadays, but it's unusual to use it without a surname, i.e. speaking to a woman named Mary Carter, you should say 'Ms Carter', not just 'Ms'.

That's a lot! I hope it helps you.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

hello team
01.I went to London on the train/on the bus
02.I went to London aboard the train/ bus

can we use aboard like this?

Hello raj jk,

Yes, 'aboard' can be used as an adverb. For example:

Six astronauts travelled aboard the space shuttle.

However, there is also the question of common use. I think 'on' is much more common with buses and trains. 'Aboard' is typically used with ships (and space ships).

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

well
what about this?
01.we went onto the plane
02.we went aboard the plane(entering)
03. we went aboard the plane (to the us)
I want to ask you how to avoid confusing 2and 3
please help me thank you!

Hello raj jk,

You can 'go on' a plane, though it's probably more typical to say 'board' a plane (e.g. 'We boarded the plane'). 'go aboard' is usually used without an object (i.e. you'll see 'she went aboard' much more than 'she went aboard the plane'). If I were speaking about entering a plane without the intention to travel on it, e.g. if I were speaking about a mechanic fixing something on board between flights, I probably wouldn't use 'board' or 'aboard' to describe her entering the plane at all.

Why don't you take a look at the dictionary entries for 'board' and 'aboard' to study the examples there?

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

thankyou

do you mean if someone enter a ship with the intention to travel
we can use aboard ( I jumped aboard the motor boat and we set off for the island)

Hello raj jk,

You can use aboard when someone gets onto a ship:

He climbed aboard the ship.

We'd better get aboard. The ship leaves soon.

 

You can also use it when travelling, as I said in my earlier answer.

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

hello team!

"About 12,000 police, military, firefighters and coast guard personnel have taking part in the rescue operation"

in above news line (bbc) present participle has used with have
but I never learned such grammar structure
please can you explain it for me
thank you?

Hello raj jk,

We don't generally comment on other sites, but I can say that you're right to suspect this sentence, as it is not grammatically correct. I expect the verb they intended to write is 'have been taking part', or perhaps what they said was 'have taken part'. Both of these forms are correct.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

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