Clause, phrase and sentence


The basic unit of English grammar is the clause:

[An unlucky student almost lost a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000]

[when he left it in the waiting room of a London station.]

[William Brown inherited the 1698 Stradivarius violin from his mother]

[and had just had it valued by a London dealer at £180,000.]

Clauses are made up of phrases:

[An unlucky student] + [almost lost] + [a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000]

[when] + [he] + [left] + [it] + [in the waiting room of a London station.]

[William Brown] + [inherited] + [the 1698 Stradivarius violin] + [from his mother]

[and] [had just had it valued] + [by a London dealer] + [at £180,000.]

We can join two or more clauses together to make sentences.

An unlucky student almost lost a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000 when he left it in the waiting room of a London station.

William Brown inherited the 1698 Stradivarius violin from his mother and had just had it valued by a London dealer at £180,000.



Hello kirk,
Concerning Musty's question you mean we can not use the word "ago"specifically with the present perfect. But in the following sentences "last Tuesday" or "1965" refer to a time in the past that is finished .
We have taught at this school since 1965.
They have been at the hotel since last Tuesday.Therefore can we say "I have not heard from him since last 2 weeks."?
Thank you,

I'm new here and I'd like to ask sth. Is it possible to say "I haven't heard from him since 2 weeks ago".
I know that normally we say "for 2 weeks" instead of "since 2 weeks ago", but I'd like to know if it wrong to use a sentence like that.
Thanks in advance. Best wishes.

Hello mustiy,

'ago' refers to a time in the past that is finished, whereas the present perfect refers to a time that has some connection with the present (i.e. not finished) - therefore 'ago' is not used with the present perfect. By far the most common ways of saying this are 'I haven't heard from him for two weeks' or 'I haven't heard from him in weeks'.

Best regards,
The LearnEnglish Team

Will you please tell me how do I combine two or more sentences into a simple sentence.
I will be grateful to you forever.

Hello subhendu datta,

I'm afraid there is no one answer to your question. How to link sentences depends upon the particular sentences in question; however, if you post the sentences you wish to combine then we'll be happy to show you how with those sentences.

Remember that a simple sentence has only one clause, while a sentence with more than one clause is a compound sentence. You can see examples and explanations on this page.

Best wishes,



The LearnEnglish Team

Hello Peter,
Thank you for reply .You are right, but I think the other sentence can be right. Please look at the following sentence: John was with Jane. In this case I can substitute Who for John as the subject and ask " Who was with Jane?" And also I can substitute Who for Jane and ask who was John with? Am I right?

Thank you Peter and Kirk.It was great.
Would you please answer this question? We use connection and association with the meaning of relationship. In the following test which one (connections or associations )can be used?
I don't want to be your friend anymore so there won't be any........ between us from now on.
Best Wishes,

Hi shadyar,

I'm not sure I'd say either 'connection' or 'association' in this case, because the first part of the sentence ('I don't want to be your friend anymore') already suggests this quite clearly. But if I had to choose one, I suppose I'd say 'association'.

Best wishes,
The LearnEnglish Team

sir please help me solve these problems
Rewrite the following sentences correcting all errors of ambiguity
1. learning very hard the examination was quite manageable
2. while still a messenger , the boy's ambition was to become a lawyer
3. visiting the zoo the first time, the big animals frighten me
4. jane told mary that she comes from the village
5. a brillliant and hardworking student, Dede's CWA is always imppressive.
6. Quietky descending the stairs, my shadow frightened me.
7. As a student of UMAT, your lecturers want you to speak very good english.
8. With her laod still on her head , cool water was offered to the porter.
9. Angered by my reply, a fight ensued.
10. Receiving a glass of water, my thirst was quenched.
11. The boy, Kofi, told his father that he was confused.
12. The police are trying to stop drinking at football matches.
13. I like my moother more than my sister
14. you can not get money while lying on your bed.
15. The student told the driver to slow down with impatience.
16. My competitors are not my enemies but my friends.
17. We bought a piano from the lady with painted legs.
18. Arsenal defeated Manchester City, handicapped by the injury of some players.
19. Being a Ghanaian , I am amazed that Mensa speaks very good English
20. Mary does not eat breakfast normally

Hello quophikombert,

I'm afraid it's not our policy to do users' homework for them! Quite apart from that, we simply don't have time to answer such long and detailed questions.

As you can see from our replies in the comments sections, we are happy to help with particular issues so if you need help with something specific and have a concrete question about it, then please ask. However, we don't offer the kind of help you're asking for here - your homework is yours to do!

Best wishes,



The LearnEnglish Team