The basic unit of English grammar is the clause:

[An unlucky student almost lost a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000]

[when he left it in the waiting room of a London station.]

[William Brown inherited the 1698 Stradivarius violin from his mother]

[and had just had it valued by a London dealer at £180,000.]

Clauses are made up of phrases:

[An unlucky student] + [almost lost] + [a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000]

[when] + [he] + [left] + [it] + [in the waiting room of a London station.]

[William Brown] + [inherited] + [the 1698 Stradivarius violin] + [from his mother]

[and] [had just had it valued] + [by a London dealer] + [at £180,000.]

We can join two or more clauses together to make sentences.

An unlucky student almost lost a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000 when he left it in the waiting room of a London station.

William Brown inherited the 1698 Stradivarius violin from his mother and had just had it valued by a London dealer at £180,000.


 

Section: 

Comments

Hi
Above, this is a phrase[ had just had it valued]
is this a verb phrase ? if yes , what is 'it valued' in the verb phrase?
[It valued]
1] I think 'it' is a pronoun replacing [the 1698 Stradivarius violin], a noun phrase.
2] 'valued' is an adjective modifying 'it' that represent the noun phrase.

Hi grammar2015,

This is an example of the 'causative have' construction;

[have something done]

The 'it' in your example is the object and, as you say, is a pronoun. 'Valued' is a past participle, not an adjective.

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Hello,

I have no idea about the construction you have mentioned above. Could you give me a page to study that 'causative have' construction?

Because I only know 'valued' acts as an adjective here. "I have just done it correctly" This one also the same as example mentioned by our friend. Here 'correctly' is not a past participle.

Thank you.

Hi! Could you please help me understand dangling modifiers in the case of restrictive and non-restrictive clauses? For e.g. "The structure of village settlements reflects the basic tenets of Hinduism, which never recognize untouchables as an integral part." In this sentence, do we need a comma before 'which'? How would it make a difference to the meaning of this sentence? Does 'which' refer to 'Hinduism' or 'the basic tenets of Hinduism'?
There is another sentence: "The struggle of the villagers is to be seen in the wider framework of the national struggle for independence and self-rule, which is a nation’s attempt to form a nation-state." Does "which" refer to 'self-rule' only or 'the national struggle for independence and self-rule' or the entire clause "The struggle of the villagers is to be seen in the wider framework of the national struggle for independence and self-rule" ?

Hello raj.kumar,

In your first example the 'which' refers to 'the basic tenets of Hinduism'. You can see this because the verb is plural (hence it refers to 'tenets'). The relative clause here is a non-defining or non-restrictive relative clause - it adds information about the tenets but does not identify which sub-group of the tenets we are describing (i.e. it does not tell us 'these tenets and not the other tenets). Non-defining relative clauses require commas, and so the comma is necessary here.

In your second example the 'which' refers to either the 'national struggle for...' or the whole sentence as it refers to 'attempt' - 'self-rule' is a state, not an attempt; 'struggle' is clearly an 'attempt'. The semantic clues here inform us, rather than the grammatical clues which we used in the first example, but which of those two possibilities is the speaker's intention is ambiguous in this sentence.

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Thank you, sir. I thought that the second clause always referred to the last word of the first clause. Is it not like this? Could you please suggest me sources for the further study ?

Hello raj.kumar123,

Very often, the relative pronoun refers to the word just before it, but as is clear in this case, that is not always true. I'm sure you could find more pages on relative clauses by doing an internet search for them – I don't have any particular recommendations – and I'd also recommend paying attention as you read. At your level, seeing relative clauses in use should give you a good sense for how they work.

All the best,

Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hello there!

My english was really bad and i wish i can learn something great in here,

I have several statements, may i know wether they're right or not and why?

1) First act of the play introduces the cast of characters and hints at the plot.

2) It is said that Einstein felt very badly about the application of his theories to the creation of bomb.

3) The people of Western Canada have been considering to separate themselves from the provinces.

4) Not until a student has mastered algebra he can begin to understand the principles of geometry, trigonometry, and physics.

5) Considering a parliamentary system, the prime minister must be appointed to the basis of the distribution of power in the parliament.

Big thanks in advance, i was really confusing.. these are complex enough for me.

Pages