Clause, phrase and sentence

 

The basic unit of English grammar is the clause:

[An unlucky student almost lost a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000]

[when he left it in the waiting room of a London station.]

[William Brown inherited the 1698 Stradivarius violin from his mother]

[and had just had it valued by a London dealer at £180,000.]

Clauses are made up of phrases:

[An unlucky student] + [almost lost] + [a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000]

[when] + [he] + [left] + [it] + [in the waiting room of a London station.]

[William Brown] + [inherited] + [the 1698 Stradivarius violin] + [from his mother]

[and] [had just had it valued] + [by a London dealer] + [at £180,000.]

We can join two or more clauses together to make sentences.

An unlucky student almost lost a 17th century violin worth almost £200,000 when he left it in the waiting room of a London station.

William Brown inherited the 1698 Stradivarius violin from his mother and had just had it valued by a London dealer at £180,000.


 

Comments

Hello,

What is the difference between
1) What happened? and 2) What's happened?
please explain with examples.

Thanks and Regards
Krishna

Hello krishna0891,

'What happened?' is a past simple form, used to talk about events which are completed.

'What's [has] happened?' is a present perfect form, used to talk about past events which have some effect or relevance now.  You might use the first question when asking about somebody's holiday, for example, or about a party which took place the previous night.  The second question would be used when the event in question has some sort of relevance now, such as if you were to see someone crying or looking very happy - then, the question is really asking 'Why do you look like this?'

I hope that clarifies it for you.

Best wishes,

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Thanks Peter......

Then when do we use "what is happened?(passive)"

how is it different from "what happened?(active)"

Hello krishna0891,

'Happen' is an intransitive verb, which means it does not have an object.  Intransitive verbs have no passive form and so the answer to your question is that we never use 'what is happened?' and use only active forms with this verb.

Best wishes,

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Thanks Peter for your great explanation.

Now I've understood it clearly.

Hello,
'
I would like to know what's the tag question of 'let's go'

Thank you.

Hi bimsara,

"Let's go, shall we?"

Please try to ask your questions on pages that discuss the question. For example, if you search for "tag questions" using the search box on the right, you'll see several pages where they are discussed. We would really prefer you ask your question on one such page so that other users can benefit from it as well.

Thanks.

Best wishes,

Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hi Kirk,

Thank you for your help.And also sorry for that I asked my question here.I never know that thing before.

Thank you.

Hello Peter, and thanks for your answer.

I have another question:
I know the past of rise is rose and the past participle is risen.
Can I say
hoped that a new spirit of freedom rose.
hoped that a new spirit of freedom has risen.
Can you help me please to know how to use them?

Hello sdgnour2014,

Your question is not really about the verbs 'rise' and 'arise', but about the relationship between the tenses, which you can learn more about in our section about the verb.  The first sentence is possible.  The second sentence is not possible.  You could say 'had risen' (already, in the past), 'was rising' (at the same time) or 'would rise' (in the future).

Best wishes,

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

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