English clauses always have a subject:

His father has just retired. Was a teacher. > He was a teacher.
I’m waiting for my wife. Is late. > She is late.
Look at the time! Is half past two.> It’s half past two.

except for the imperative (see more)

Go away.
Play it again please.

If we have no other subject we use there or it.

there

We use there as a dummy subject with part of the verb be followed by a noun phrase. (see Clauses, sentences and phrases):

• to introduce a new topic:

There is a meeting this evening. It will start at seven.
There has been an accident. I hope no one is hurt.

• with numbers or quantities:

There was a lot of rain last night.
There must have been more than five hundred in the audience.

• to say where something is:

There used to be a playground at the end of the street.
There are fairies at the bottom of the garden.
I wonder if there will be anyone at home.

• with an indefinite pronoun or expressions of quantity and the to-infinitive:

There is nothing to do in the village.
There was plenty to read in the apartment
There was nothing to watch on television.
There is a lot of work to do

If we want to show the subject of the to-infinitive we use for:

There is nothing for the children to do in the village.
There was plenty for us to read in the apartment
There was nothing for them to watch on television.
There is a lot of work for you to do.

• with an indefinite pronoun or expressions of quantity and an -ing verb:

There is someone waiting to see you.
There were a lot of people shouting and waving.

We use a singular verb if the noun phrase is singular:

There is a meeting this evening. It will start at seven.
There was a lot of rain last night.
There is someone waiting to see you.

We use a plural verb if the noun phrase is plural:

There are more than twenty people waiting to see you.
There were some biscuits in the cupboard.
There were a lot of people shouting and waving.
 

It

We use it to talk about:

• times and dates:

It’s nearly one o’clock.
It’s my birthday.

• weather:

It’s raining.
It’s a lovely day.
It was getting cold.

• to give an opinion about a place:

It’s very cold in here.
It will be nice when we get home.
It’s very comfortable in my new apartment.

• to give an opinion followed by to-infinitive:

It’s nice to meet you.
It will be great to go on holiday.
It was interesting to meet your brother at last.

• to give an opinion followed by an -ing verb:

It’s great living in Spain.
It’s awful driving in this heavy traffic.
It can be hard work looking after young children.

  

Using "it" to talk about people

We use it to talk about ourselves:

• on the telephone:

Hello. It’s George.

• when people cannot see us:

[Mary knocks on door] It’s me. It’s Mary.

We use it to talk about other people:

• when we point them out for the first time:

Look. It’s Sir Paul McCartney.
Who’s that? I think it’s John’s brother.

• when we cannot see them and we ask them for their name:

[telephone rings, we pick it up] Hello. Who is it?
[someone knocks on door. We say:] Who is it

 

Task 1

 Exercise

Task 2

 Exercise

Section: 

Comments

Please let me describe below sentence -

If you're hungry, there's some lasagne in the fridge.

Why only lasagne show right answer why not other food !

Regards,
Asad

Hello Asad,

The instructions for Task 2 say 'Can you remember the sentences from the last activity?'

It is a memory test as well as a language test!

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

I brought it from there ..
what is "there " in the sentence ??1. Noun 2. pronoun 3. Adverb 4. adjective.
I think it's an adverb but I want to be sure.
_____________________________________________________________
Do you hear that dog barking over
there?
what is "there " in the sentence ?1. Adverb2. Pronoun3. Adjective 4. Noun
I think it's an adverb but I want to be sure.
_____________________________________________________
Those there apples are fresh for picking!
what is " there ' in the sentence???1. Adverb 2. Adjective 3. Noun 4. Pronoun
I am totally confused about it.
______________________________________________________
There was plenty to read in the apartment.
what is " there ' in the sentence???1. Adverb 2. Adjective 3. Noun 4. Pronoun
I think it's a pronoun but not sure.

Hello muslimbadshah,

I'm afraid we don't offer a service to check or do homework or tests from elsewhere. If we tried to do this for our users then we'd have no time for anything else on the site! We're happy to explain points related to the material on our pages, but checking your exercises is a job for your own teacher.

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

It's very usefull to improve English grammar!. Thanks so much!!!

This is amazing thank you guys so much for making this website

hi i'm new here ... i just want to ask that my this sentence is correct or not , "when i called you , in that particular moment i felt something, as you were crying". kindly reply me . Thank you.

Hello Aliza Ansari,

Yes, that sentence makes sense. You might want to look at our talking about the past page for more on how to use the different past tenses.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

hello,
Verry useful lesson, but i can't memorize the rules in my mind?

Hello dorex,

It can be difficult to memorise rules, can't it? However, it's not really necessary to memorise them as such. Most fluent English speakers can't tell you the rules; they have simply picked them up through hearing a lot of English and using English. The most important thing is not to memorise rules but to practise using the language in meaningful ways - reading, listening, speaking and writing. If you keep using the language actively then the rules will stay in your head, even if you can't recall them!

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

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