Pronouns are words we use in the place of a full noun.

There are many different kinds of pronouns.



Hello uchiha itache,

When we are talking about time we use the following:

this + day/month/year = the next one

next + day/month/year = the one after next

last + day/month/year = the most recent one in the past before the current cycle

the + day/month/year before last = the one before the most recent one in the past


Today is Saturday, 31st March 2018. Therefore:

this Monday = Monday, 2nd April 2018

next Monday = Monday, 9th April 2018

last Sunday = Sunday, 25th March 2018

the Sunday before last = Saturday, 18th April 2018


When we walk about months there is a possibility of confusion. To avoid this, we generally use 'last' to refer to the month before the current cycle. To take your example, if it is March 2018 then 'last February' would refer to February 2017. To refer to February 2018 we would simply say 'in February' with a past tense verb.


We use 'the last' only to mean 'the final' - the last of a sequence. Thus 'the last year' would need some context like 'the last year of my studies' or 'the last year of the century'. We do not use it in the way you suggest. Instead we say 'the year before...':

In 2017 I had an accident and the year before that I broke up.



The LearnEnglish Team

My teacher said that we can use (but for / without / in case (of) ) in conditionals
But I don't know how to use them..I mean I should use them for 1st or 2nd or 3rd conditional? So which of the following is grammatically correct
1 without your help , I won't do it
2 without your help , I wouldn't do it
3 without your help, I wouldn't have done it
And if 2 and 3 are correct , what Is the difference in the meaning?

Is but for used only in 2nd and 3rd conditional? And in case only in the 1st ?

Hello uchiha itache,

All of those sentences are fine. The 'Without...' construction means something similar to 'If... not...':

Without your help, I won't do it = If I don't have your help, I won't do it.

Without your help, I wouldn't do it = If I didn't have your help / If I hadn't had your help, I wouldn't do it.

Without your help, I wouldn't have done it  = If I hadn't had your help, I wouldn't have done it.

The difference between the last two is the time reference of the result clause. The second example has a present or future result, depending on the context, while the third example has a past result.


As you say, we do not use 'but for' in the first example. We can use 'in case of' with all of these examples. For example, it is fine to say 'I'll take an umbrella in case of rain'.



The LearnEnglish Team

So this means ( without / in case / in case of ) for all the 3 conditionals
But for ..for 2nd and 3rd

Without your help, I wouldn't have done it ..this means I did it cause you helped me cause it's something in the past and if I say without your help, I won't do it ans this one means if you don't help me I won't do it can the 2nd one ( I wouldn't do it )
Has a present or future result ? I still don't get it.i mean 2nd condition is used to talk about improbable situations or imaginary so how could it has a different meaning than example 1 ?

Last thing can you give me 1 example in which we use in case ( of ) with 3rd or 2nd condition cause I can't use it in the past

I couldn't find an appropriate section to submit this question, so I am putting it here, with the request that please respond to it.

Of the following two, which one is correct?

1. Neither did he come nor sent any gifts.
2. Neither did he come nor send any gifts.



Hi Adaya's,

If you want to use the inverted emphatic form then the second sentence is correct. The form 'send' is used because inversion is used in both halves but the auxiliary is omitted to avoid repetiton:

Neither did he come nor (did he) send any gifts.


This is a very formal structure used for rhetorical effect. A more common way to say this would be as follows:

He neither came nor sent any gifts.



The LearnEnglish Team

Electric or electrical ? I am very confused and I never know when to use any of them
Why is it called and electric car and it is called electrical devices/goods/equipment?!

Hello uchiha itache,

Both words are adjectives but there is a difference in meaning.

Electric describes things that are powered by electricity, so we can talk about electric cars, electric toothbrushes, electric guitars and electric motors.

Electrical describes things that are related to electricity in some way, so we can talk about electrical engineering, electrical faults and electrical connectors.

However, note that there is a lot of overlap in how these are used. I think in modern English the distinction is eroding so you can find examples where they are used interchangeably (e.g. you can find both electric circuits and electrical circuits).



The LearnEnglish Team

Hello. I've heard that it's not correct to use "to be going to go", but I met in some books this combination. So, is it wrong to say "Where are you going to go on your next vacation?", and I need to say "Where are you going on your next vacation?", or both are possible? Could you help me with this please. Thank you.