The reflexive pronouns are:

 

Singular: myself - yourself - himself - herself - itself
Plural: ourselves - yourselves - themselves


When we use a reflexive pronoun

We use a reflexive pronoun:

• as a direct object when the object is the same as the subject of the verb:

I am teaching myself to play the piano.
Be careful with that knife. You might cut yourself.

We can use a reflexive pronoun as direct object with most transitive verbs, but these are the most common:

amuse blame cut dry enjoy help
hurt introduce kill prepare satisfy teach


Some verbs change their meaning slightly when they have a reflexive pronoun as direct object:

  • Would you like to help yourself to another drink?
    = Would you like to take another drink.
  • I wish the children would behave themselves.
     = I wish the children would behave well.
  • He found himself lying by the side of the road.
    He was surprised when he realised that he was at the side of the road.
  • I saw myself as a famous actor.
    = I imagined that I was a famous actor.
  • She applied herself to the job of mending the lights.
    = She worked very hard to mend the lights.
  • He busied himself in the kitchen.
     = He worked busily in the kitchen.
  • I had to content myself with a few Euros.
    I had to be satisfied with a few Euros.

We do not use a reflexive pronoun after verbs which describe things people usually do for themselves, such as wash, shave, dress:

He washed [himself] in cold water.
He always shaved [himself] before going out in the evening.
Michael dressed [himself] and got ready for the party.

We only use reflexives with these verbs for emphasis:

He dressed himself in spite of his injuries.
She’s old enough to wash herself.

• as indirect object when the indirect object is the same as the subject of the verb:

Would you like to pour yourself a drink.
We’ve brought ourselves something to eat.

• as the object of a preposition when the object refers to the subject of the clause:

They had to cook for themselves.
He was feeling very sorry for himself.

 

Warning

But we use personal pronouns, not reflexives, after prepositions of place...

He had a suitcase beside him.

and after with when it means "accompanied by":

She had a few friends with her.

 

We use a reflexive pronoun...

• with the preposition by when we want to show that someone did something alone and/or without any help:

He lived by himself in an enormous house.
She walked home by herself.

The children got dressed by themselves.
I prepared the whole meal by myself.

• to emphasise the person or thing we are referring to:

Kendal itself is quite a small town.

especially if we are talking about someone very famous:

Sir Paul McCartney himself sang the final song.

We often put the reflexive pronoun at the end of the clause when we are using it for emphasis:

I baked the bread myself.
She mended the car herself

 

Activities
 

Choose the correct reflexive pronouns to complete the sentences

 

Decide if the sentences are correct or incorrect
Section: 

Comments

Hi Peter,
"They were very sorry themselves". I don't understand why this sentence is incorrect. Let me know why?
with regards,
PWM

Hello Phyo Wai Maung,

In general, if you use a reflexive pronoun in a sentence like this, the preposition 'for' precedes it: 'They felt very sorry for themselves', but since I don't know the context or what you want to say, I'm not sure that's appropriate for what you want to communicate. In this case, it expresses the idea that the people felt self-pity.

I'd suggest you take a look at the dictionary entry for 'sorry', where you can see lots of examples sentences that show how it's used. You're also welcome to respond if you want to explain what you're trying to say a bit more – perhaps we can give you a more definitive answer then. 

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

I don't understand the rule .. I am confuse :(

Hello PaolaPao,

I'm sorry to hear that you're confused. If you'd like us to, we're happy to help you, but we can't do that unless you ask us a specific question.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hi, all,

I don't understand why this sentence should be correct:

Although he kept a large collection of whiskies, he rarely drank himself.
Why don't I say: he rarely drink.

Hello Inas Elshinnawy,

The sentence describes something in the past and so both verb forms are in the past tense: kept and drank.

If you want to talk about the present then you need to change both verbs: keep and drink.

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Hi, Peter,

I wrote drink by mistake.I mean to write just drank without himself. I don't understand why the sentence is correct.

Hello again Inas,

Could you explain why you think 'Although he kept a large collection of whiskies, he rarely drank' is not correct? It's difficult to explain why it's correct without knowing why you think it is incorrect.

Best wishes,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hi, Kirk,
I think it's incorrect because "drink" is one of the actions that people naturally do by themselves. It's understood. Unless "himself" is used for emphasize in this sentence.
Please confirm that.

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