The relative pronouns are:

 

Subject Object Possessive
who who(m) whose
which which whose
that that  

 


We use who and whom for people, and which for things.
Or we can use that for people or things.

We use relative pronouns:

after a noun, to make it clear which person or thing we are talking about:

the house that Jack built
the woman who discovered radium
an eight-year-old boy who attempted to rob a sweet shop

to tell us more about a person or thing:

My mother, who was born overseas, has always been a great traveller.
Lord Thompson, who is 76, has just retired.
We had fish and chips, which is my favourite meal.

But we do not use that as a subject in this kind of relative clause.

We use whose as the possessive form of who:

This is George, whose brother went to school with me.

We sometimes use whom as the object of a verb or preposition:

This is George, whom you met at our house last year.
This is George’s brother, with whom I went to school.

But nowadays we normally use who:

This is George, who you met at our house last year.
This is George’s brother, who I went to school with.

When whom or which have a preposition the preposition can come at the beginning of the clause...

I had an uncle in Germany, from who[m] I inherited a bit of money.
We bought a chainsaw, with which we cut up all the wood.

or at the end of the clause:

I had an uncle in Germany who[m] I inherited a bit of money from.
We bought a chainsaw, which we cut all the wood up with.

We can use that at the beginning of the clause:

I had an uncle in Germany that I inherited a bit of money from.
We bought a chainsaw that we cut all the wood up with.

Exercise

Section: 

Comments

When to use such...as or such..that

Ex
read such books as can enrich your knowledge.

Or

read such books that can enrich your knowledge.

Could nt find any article on this site so....

Hello Sunny21parikh,

In this example both forms are possible and have the same meaning but 'such as' is quite old-fashioned, I would say, when used in this way.

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

But Sir when should we use such...as and such...that

I mean rules..

Thx.

Hello Sunny21parikh,

Both of these forms have various meanings. For example, in the sentence you gave 'such as' means something like 'such books which', whereas in other sentences it can mean 'like' or 'similar to'. I'm afraid it's not possible for us to list all of the ways forms like this can be used.

In the comments sections we can explain material on the page which is not clear, or help with specific examples. We can't write long and detailed explanations of multiple uses of multiple phrases.

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Hello Sir,
Let me ask a question about relative pronoun which.
>>Those apples were very expensive.I bought them two days ago.
>>>Those apples were very expensive which I bought two days ago.
>>>I bought apples two days ago which were very expensive.
In two sentences,which one is correct Sir.

Hello May Thu Zaw,

The last sentence is the best. The second sentence separates the relative clause from the noun which it describes in a way which we would not do. The best way to express this would be:

Those apples which I bought two days ago were very expensive.

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

sir,
In the following sentence what does 'such were' refers to?

When this bracing elements of craftsmanship ceased to dominate artists' outlook, new technical elements had to be adopted to maintain the intellectual elements in art. Such were linear perspective and anatomy.

Hello neh7272,

I find this pair of sentences a bit unnatural, to be honest, but what I understand is that 'such' refers to 'new technical elements'.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Sir can you please these following clear:

The surya whom you met last night is my friend.
Vs
The surya who you met last night is my friend.
I was following wren and martin were it says noun/pronoun followed by who is used to define, limit and restrict the noun/ pronoun.
But here "met" verb takes you as the subject and surya is an object.

So please make it clear.

Hello suryachaitanya,

Both of the sentences are correct. Traditionally, only 'whom' was considered correct here since it is the object of 'met', but in modern use, 'who' is very commonly used in the place of 'whom'.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

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