Conditionals 2

 

Third conditionals and mixed conditionals

Conditionals are sentences with two clauses – an ‘if clause and a main clause – that are closely related. Conditional sentences are often divided into different types.

Third conditional

Third conditional sentences describe the past. They describe something that didn’t happen.

  • If I’d studied harder at school I would have gone to university.

He didn’t study very hard and he didn’t go to university.

  • We wouldn’t have got lost if you hadn’t given me the wrong directions.

She wasn't given the correct directions and she didn't find her way.

  • She might have finished the exam if she’d had more time.

She didn't finish the exam and she didn't have more time.

In third conditional sentences, the structure is usually if + past perfect and would + perfect infinitive (e.g. have done). It’s not important which clause comes first.

Notice that other modal verbs can be used instead of ‘would’ (e.g. ‘could’, ‘might’ ‘may’)

Mixed conditionals

In mixed conditional sentences the time in the ‘if’ clause is not the same as the time in the main clause. There can be various combinations.

  • If he’d gone to university he might have a better job.

He didn’t go to university (past)
He doesn’t have a very good job. (present)
This sentence shows the present consequences of a past action.

  • If I’d won the competition I’d be going to Florida next week.

She didn’t win the competition (past)
She isn’t going to Florida (future)
This sentence shows the future consequences of a past action.

  • If he didn’t have to work tomorrow he wouldn’t be so miserable today.

He has to work tomorrow (future)
He’s miserable. (present)
This sentence shows the present consequence of a future event.

 

Exercise

Comments

Hello, please let me Know is this form of question right grammatically?"how many brothers has David?"

Hello shadyar,

No, that is not correct. In the present simple, questions are formed using the auxiliary verb do/does: 'How many brothers does David have?'

You can learn about how this works, as well as find examples and exercises, on our present simple page.

Best wishes,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hello sirs
I have a doubt that generally 'to' followed by v¹ ,but sometimes 'to' followed by ,v+ing,
Please explain in detail.I am eagerly waiting your response sir.

Hello Guddu,

'to' is used in different ways. It's often used to form an infinitive (e.g. 'I would like to meet the Dalai Lama' or 'She is said to be a whiz at maths'), but when 'to' is used as a preposition, like all prepositions, it must be followed by a noun phrase (e.g. 'I went to the cinema' or 'He's not used to working at night'). The noun form of a verb is the '-ing' form - that is why 'work' becomes 'working' in the last example sentence.

Best wishes,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hello there my ELT team members. .you did a novel work for the new commerce. ...n after I visited ur site....I sent this link to my family members. .my relatives. .friends. .co -workers...I got a ton of appreciation from them for giving them such type of online ELT platform. .
Eventually all credit goes to ELT members.

Hello,

PETER M, you told me that "The negative of 'had to' is 'didn't have to', not '*hadn't to" (http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/english-grammar/clause-phrase-...)

Do I have to understand that the clauses of the exercise on this page like "if i hadn't eaten...; if you hadn't taken..." have to be writen like " If I didn't have eaten...; If you didn't have taken..." or something like this?
If not; if the clauses are well writen here, can you tell my why the clause "If he hadn't to work he wouldn't be miserable" is not good?

Thanks for your help

Nuras

Hello Nuras,

There is a distinction between the form you quoted on the other page, which is 'have to + infinitive' (as in 'I had to go' and 'I didn't have to go'), and the form you are quoting here, which is 'have' used as an auxiliary verb to make a perfective form (as in 'have + past participle or 'modal verb + have'). The examples on this page are of 'have' used as an auxiliary, which is a different use and has a different negative form.

He had to go > He didn't have to go (not *'He hadn't to go')

but

He had gone > He hadn't gone (not *'He didn't have gone')

He must have gone > I mustn't have gone (not *'He must don't have gone')

I hope that clarifies it for you.

Best wishes,

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

I think that this kind of exercises don't show the right level of knowledge, and I suggest you don to better exercises so that when I finish the exercises I can pass an exam in every situation.

Hello Fifademo,

I'm sorry that you find these exercises unsatisfactory. Our intention is for you to be able to test yourself on the basic information presented on the page, not to provide comprehensive practice or to prepare you for an exam. In fact, every exam is different, so it's difficult to imagine a set of exercises that would prepare you for every exam you could encounter.

If you're concerned about exams, I'd suggest you work on preparing yoursel for that specific exam. For example, if you're going to take the IELTS, be sure to take a look at our IELTS section.

Good luck!

Best wishes,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

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