Read the grammar explanation and do the exercise.

Participle clauses

Participle clauses are a form of adverbial clause which enables us to say information in a more economical way. We can use participle clauses when the participle and the verb in the main clause have the same subject. For example:

Waiting for John, I made some tea.

Waiting for John, the kettle boiled. [This would suggest that the kettle was waiting for John!]

 

Forming participle clauses

Participle clauses can be formed with the present participle (-ing form of the verb) or past participle (third form of the verb). Participle clauses with past participles have a passive meaning:

Shouting loudly, Peter walked home. [Peter was shouting]

Shouted at loudly, Peter walked home. [Someone was shouting at Peter]

If we wish to emphasise that one action was before another then we can use a perfect participle (having + past participle):

Having won the match, Susan jumped for joy.

Having been told the bad news, Susan sat down and cried.

 

 

The meaning and use of participle clauses

Participle clauses give information about condition, reason, result or time. For example:

 

CONDITION (in place of an if-condition):

Looked after carefully, this coat will keep you warm through many winters.

Compare: If you look after it carefully, this coat will keep you warm through many winters.

 

REASON (in place of words like so or therefore):

Wanting to speak to him about the contract, I decided to arrange a meeting.

Compare: I wanted to speak to him about the contract so I decided to arrange a meeting.

 

RESULT (in place of words like because or as a result):

I had no time to read my book, having spent so long doing my homework.

Compare: I had no time to read my book because I had spent so long doing my homework.

 

TIME (in place of words like when, while or as soon as):

Sitting at the cafe with my friends, I suddenly realised that I had left the oven on at home.

Compare: While I was sitting at the cafe with my friends, I suddenly realised that I had left the oven on at home.

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Comments

Sir,
I want to say that seeing him reminds me
something.
Now can I also rewrite the same thing like
this= (By) Seeing him, I remember
something, Or (By) Seeing him, I come to
remember somthing ?

By writing 'By' In front of both sentenses,
I want to ask you If we can use this word
'By' as a preposition or are these sentenses
better without 'By' ?

Hello SonuKumar,

We do not add 'by' here. You can rewrite the sentence using 'when' and a finite verb:

Seeing him, I remember something

When I see him, I remember something

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

i want to expand my question can we provide all causality meaning contrast meaning condition meaning+ which action happen first by using perfect participle for example
could you please clarify these examples diferrences meanings etc

if studying hard i could pass the exam
if having studied hard i could pass the exam

although he had visited the rome, he didnt remember anything about it
although visiting the Rome he didnt remember anything about it
although having visited the Rome he didnt remember anything about it

he felt happy because her friends had visited her
having been visited by her friends he felt happy
visited by her friends he felt happy

Hello Serhan677099,

There are problems with many of these examples. The relationship between participle phrases and conjunctions is complex. Sometimes it is possible to use a participle phrase after a conjunction. Sometimes it is not. And sometimes the conjunction is necessary. Some conjunctions are very rarely or never used with participle phrases.

 

The conjunctions which can be often with participle phrases include after, before, since, when, while, whenever, once, until, on, without, instead of, in spite of and as.

 

I will comment on each of your sentences briefly below. However, please note that we generally do not answer questions which contain lists of different examples. We're happy to answer shorter questions but this kind of question is really something which you should address to a teacher so that he or she can adequately explain the various issues involved. With many thousands of users on LearnEnglish and only a small team to deal with questions, it's not possible for us to provide this kind of individual help, unfortunately. 

 

if studying hard i could pass the exam 
if having studied hard i could pass the exam

These sentences are not correct. You could omit if and simply use the participle, or you could use a finite verb:

Studying hard, I could pass the exam. 

If I studied hard, I could pass the exam.

Having studied hard, I could pass the exam.

As I had studied hard, I could pass the exam.

 

 

although he had visited the rome, he didnt remember anything about it

This sentence is fine.

although visiting the Rome he didnt remember anything about it
although having visited the Rome he didnt remember anything about it

The contrast provided by although is key to the sense of the sentence and so we cannot simply remove it. You could use a preposition like despite or in spite of (with a gerund rather than a participle to follow it), or you could use a finite verb instead of the participle, as in the first sentence (Although he had...):

Despite visiting Rome, he didn't remember anything about it.

 

 

he felt happy because her friends had visited her

This sentence is fine. It tells us that she is being visited.

having been visited by her friends he felt happy

This sentence is grammatically correct but has a different meaning. In this sentence, he is visited by her friends; in the sentence above she was visited by her friends.

visited by her friends he felt happy

This is fine. Here he is being visited.

 

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

I understand that participles can replace 'because' namely they may have causality meaning
And perfect participles are used for stating which action happens first
Can we use perfect participle with causality meaning plus stating which action happens first for example
Sarah dont like dogs because he has been bitten by a dog
bitten by a dog Sarah dont like dogs
having been bitten by a dog Sarah dont like dogs
What is the meaning difference between these sentences

Hello! Could you provide any references on perfect participles and sentence structure? We have been taught that a perfect participle is always followed by an object? I haven't found any relevant source with this info yet. Thanks in advance!

Hello Helen31,

A perfect participle is formed with [having + past participle]: having slept, having eaten, having spoken. It indicates an action which was completed in the past.

You can form perfect participles with transitive verbs (with an object) or intransitive verbs (without an object), so an object is not always required. For example:

Having risen early, I had a long wait for the train. [no object]

Having asked my questions, I left the room.

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Hello again. This is very hard to understand Participle Clause. I wrote some sentenses that give information about time, result and etc. Could you check them, please?

Condition
Went to Paris tomorrow, you will attend the meeting.
If you go to Paris tomorrow, you will attend the meeting.

Reason
Wanting to go away, he left the concert.
He wanted to go away so he left the concert.

Result
It being late, he bolted the windows.
Because it’s late, he bolted the windows.

Time

Singing the song, the doorbell rang.
When I was singing the song, the doorbell rang.

Thanks in advance.

And could you explain about the subject in the participle clause? Can we use it ot not?

Hello ifencing,

There are some problems with the sentences:

 

Condition
Went to Paris tomorrow, you will attend the meeting.
If you go to Paris tomorrow, you will attend the meeting.

The problem here is that you are trying to use 'went' as a passive form, just as 'Look after carefully' in the example is a passive form. However, the verb 'go' does not have a passive form because it is an intransitive verb.

The use of participles for conditions is quite unusual. The meaning is 'provided that...' or 'in the case that...' and establishes a requirement for the result, rather than describing possibility.

 

Reason
Wanting to go away, he left the concert.
He wanted to go away so he left the concert.

Grammatically, this is fine. However, it is rather trivial and repetitive. Leaving is the same as going away, so there is no real reason provided here. The participle should tell us something rather than simply repeat the information in the main clause. For example, you could say Wanting to be alone, ...

 

Result
It being late, he bolted the windows.
Because it’s late, he bolted the windows.

This is fine.

 

Time

Singing the song, the doorbell rang.
When I was singing the song, the doorbell rang.

This sentence is incorrect. Remember that the actor is the same for both parts of the sentence, so your sentence suggests that the doorbell was singing the song. The sentence could read Singing the song, I heard the doorbell.

 

Please note that we generally do not provide this kind of extended feedback. We're happy to answer questions about our material and about English in general but we have many thousands of users and are a small team, so providing comments on lists of sentences is not generally possible for us, unfortunately.

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

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