What are the advantages of learning several languages from an early age? What are the dangers? What’s the best way to teach your child two or more languages simultaneously?

Bilingualism

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Bilingualism

by Jo Bertrand

Being the mother of two potentially bilingual children (the youngest is only three months old) and the teacher of French and English bilingual children, the subject of bilingualism is very important to me. In fact we have recently moved to China and are now considering multilingualism. But what are the advantages of learning several languages from an early age? What are the dangers? What’s the best way to teach your child two or more languages simultaneously? I don’t suggest I have the answers here but like most mothers and teachers I certainly have a point of view!

What is a bilingual child?

The way I see it, being bilingual means being able to communicate almost perfectly in two languages and also knowing something about both cultures. If I take the example of my daughter it’s about being able to understand when someone is speaking another language and being able to switch automatically into speaking it with them. At two and a half she has already grasped the concept of ‘Daddy speaks French and Mummy speaks English’. She has even picked up that Bai Yuoine speaks Chinese! I think it’s very important for her to know that the cartoon character Noddy is also called Oui Oui by her friends at playgroup and that Marmite and Cadburys chocolate exist as well as croissants. This is what makes it possible for her to communicate with the people around her regardless of whether they are French or English.

Why encourage bilingualism?

In our case it is logical that with an English mother and French father our children should be able to speak both languages to communicate, not only with us, but with their grandparents and extended family. On a wider scale, learning two or more languages helps children to accept cultures other than their own. If speaking their mother tongue(s) at home and at school is encouraged they are more likely to enjoy their difference and view difference in general as a positive thing.

How do you raise a bilingual child?

There may be a dominant language and this will normally depend on the country you live in or the language your child uses most at school. However, it will also depend on what language is spoken in the home. We lived in France and spoke French at home but I always speak to my children in English. It’s imperative that the child has consistency. They know that their English auntie will always speak to them in English and that for her to understand them they should speak to her in English.

What are the dangers?

It can be very difficult for people around you to support what you do. Grandparents can be upset if they don’t understand what you’re saying to their grandchild and worry that they will never be able to communicate with them. This is of course highly unlikely and you should stick to your guns.

Another problem we have encountered was when our daughter refused to listen to either of us. A psychologist advised us that as there wasn’t a common language at home between the parents and child and so I should stop speaking English and spend the weekend speaking only in French. Thankfully I decided to ignore this piece of advice and persisted with my English!

I also know of one child who had problems at school because his friends made fun of him. His parents eventually gave up speaking English to him. Unfortunately children can be cruel and differences, whatever they may be, are often a source of bullying. Differences need to be promoted and valued and celebrations such as the International Mother Language Day help to do just that.

International Mother Language Day

21st February 2000 saw the first Mother Language Day celebrated internationally. However the importance of this date originated in Bangladesh where in 1952 a handful of students, now known as language martyrs, were killed in demonstrations defending Bangla, their mother language. In 1999 UNESCO decided to take this cause onto an international scale in order to encourage cultural diversity and worldwide tolerance.

The Themes

Each year the celebration is devoted to a different aspect of language. This has ranged from how children learn their literacy skills at school to how to preserve some of the 6000 languages that exist worldwide. One year was about developing the teaching of mother languages and in 2002 the celebration helped raise awareness of linguistic and cultural traditions around the world. This year the International Mother Language Day is dedicated to Braille and Sign Language, two non-verbal languages that are an invaluable source of communication for many people around the world.

A Multilingual Community

It’s essential that we limit alienation throughout the world. By speaking other languages as well as your own, or having two or more mother languages, you can contribute to the creation of a global community. My contribution to this multilingual community is exposing my children to varied cultures and languages, maintaining their mother language, while trying to learn the language of the people around me. Although with my ten or so words of Mandarin I am far from being multilingual!

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Hello! Very useful material. I think beeing able to speak several languages, first of all, increases your self-confidence. I can tell from my experience when mooving to Italy, althought i have been able to undestand the people around me, i coudn't make myself understood by them and that was really frustraiting to me. I know we shoudn't judge a book by his cover, but, unfortunatly, people tend to do that often, especially when an outsider is involved.

Hi Kirk,
May I verify the author name: Jo Bertrand.
That's about the second word in the name, based on what I heard, it is somehow "Berthel" with /th/ in it, instead of "Bertrand" with /tr/ that i couldnt hear.
That's only my concern.
Beside, I want to say thank you so much for those videos uploaded onto the website, they are very useful for me.
Wish you the best,
Sarah

Hello Sarah_le,

The person in the recording pronounces the name 'Bertrand' with the French pronunciation. When it is pronounced with an English pronunciation, the 'tr' is audible. Sorry for the confusion!

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hello!!! I can't understand why "Having".
"Have" is not a continuous verb?
"By speaking other languages as well as your own, or having two or more mother languages, you can contribute to the creation of a global community."

Hello Osyka Alexander,

It's true that verbs like 'have' tend not to be used in continuous forms, but it is possible to use them that way. For example, you can find 'having' in participle clauses or even in the present continuous to speak, for example, about a temporary condition (e.g. 'I'm having a hard time adjusting to the summer heat'). It's also possible after certain verbs.

In the sentence you ask about, the -ing form of 'have' is used because it follows the preposition 'by' ('by speaking ... by having'. Verbs after prepositions are in the -ing form.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

 

Hi, learnenglish team, There is something not clear for me: "Unfortunately children can be cruel and differences whatever they may be are often a source of bullying." In this sentence, do they imply differences by saying "whatever they may be". And second question is, Why the speaker regrets saying "Unfortunately", does it refer to "to be made fun of him" or other?

Hi Aska07,

The phrase 'whatever they may be' means something like 'of any kind'. It means that the type of difference is not important; any difference can have the effect described. I have actually edited the text to make it clearer as the phrase 'whatever they may be' should have commas around it.

The word 'unfortunately' describes the speaker's view of what she is saying. The sentence

Unfortunately children can be cruel and differences whatever they may be are often a source of bullying

tells us that the speaker thinks that it is unfortunate that children can be cruel etc. This use of an adverb to show the speaker's opinion is sometimes called a sentence adverb or a disjunct. Here are some more examples:

Sadly, she died. [the speaker thinks that the fact that she died is sad]

Happily, he passed the exam. [the speaker thinks that the fact that he passed the exam is cause for happiness]

Disgracefully, he was not invited. [the speaker thinks that the fact he was not invited is a disgrace]

 

I hope that helps to clarify it for you.

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

word of ''imperative'' is different meaning from essential and important. İt is be mistake in task 2

Hello fikretonder,

It's true that 'imperative' doesn't mean exactly the same thing as 'essential' and 'important', but it can mean something similar - see this dictionary definition. That is why it is correct as an answer in this exercise.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

"It’s essential that we limit alienation throughout the world. By speaking other languages as well as your own, or having two or more mother languages, you can contribute to the creation of a global community."

I don't believe this is entirely necessary. You can contribute very positively to the global community by being open and receptive to new languages and cultures. It is beyond many people to have two or more mother languages. Learning a second language with any degree of fluency can be very difficult for some with limited time and financial constraints. I find learning a little about several different languages and cultures is very enriching and satisfying.

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