There are perhaps 370 million indigenous peoples in 70 countries around the world. They live on 20% of the world’s land, and they contribute 80% of the world’s biological and cultural diversity.

Indigenous Peoples


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Indigenous peoples

by Richard Sidaway

'We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors, we borrow it from our children’ (Native American proverb)

In December 2005, Evo Morales became the new President of Bolivia. He was only 46 years old and openly supported the production and use of the coca plant. He also wanted the state to take control of the profitable natural gas industry. But what was really significant was where he came from. He was born into a farming family in the Andes and spent much his life campaigning for the interests of the original inhabitants of the country. He was one of the first leaders of an indigenous people to make it to the top.

There are perhaps 370 million indigenous peoples in 70 countries around the world. They live on 20% of the world’s land, and they contribute 80% of the world’s biological and cultural diversity. For the last few hundred years, however, European colonialism has marginalised them. Europeans gave them diseases against which they had no defences, suppressed their culture and language, and tried to assimilate them into western societies.

Sometimes they almost disappeared from history. Few people today have heard of the Herero of Namibia.  Eighty per cent of their population died from starvation a century ago at the hands of German colonisers.  In 1803, there were 10,000 people living in Tasmania, but after the British declared war on them twenty years later, only 300 survived. The last Tasman died in 1905.

The main reason for the decimation of indigenous peoples has been to get their land and natural resources. In Colombia, a hundred years of oil extraction has resulted in the pollution of rivers, soil and drinking water. The story is repeated in Ecuador and Peru. In Brazil, the government plan to build five large dams on the Xingu River. These will flood thousands of square kilometres of tribal reserves and destroy much agricultural land.

Often governments have used forced relocation to get the local inhabitants out of the way. In Botswana today it is happening because of diamond mining and tourism. In the islands of Diego Garcia, in the Indian Ocean, the entire population were banished forever in order to build an airbase.

Land has a spiritual significance for indigenous people. In 1985 the Australian government finally recognised this and returned ownership of Uluru (Ayers Rock) to the Pitjantjatjara Aborigines. In the USA, however, the government is planning to store radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain in Nevada, although it is a sacred site for the Shoshone nation.

Businesses often try to take possession of indigenous cultures. Multinational companies wanted to become the owners of traditional knowledge in areas such as food, farming and health. They have tried to create patents on plants and medicines that indigenous people have used for centuries.

Native languages are also disappearing. They were banned in schools for decades. Parents stopped using them to communicate in the home, and so they were no longer passed from one generation to another.

Sometimes families have been affected in more dramatic ways. In Australia, it was government policy from 1900-1972 to forcibly remove aboriginal children from their parents and bring them up in institutions.

Health problems such as obesity, heart disease and diabetes are another feature of indigenous life. The writer Paul Theroux, travelling in the Pacific, noted that most islanders’ diets nowadays consisted of junk food and canned fish imported from Japan thousands of miles away - despite the fact that they were surrounded by water, and fishing had been a way of life for millennia.

So is the election of Mr Morales, in one of the world’s poorest countries, a sign that things are finally getting better? Various peoples around the world now have their own representation. There is a Sámi parliament in Sweden and an Assembly of First Nations in Canada.

Formal Apologies were passed in several Australian State Parliaments in 1998 for the past mistreatment of the Aboriginal population. In Aotearoa/New Zealand, the Treaty of Waitangi Act has made it possible for Maoris to claim back land, fisheries and forest in special courts where they have equal representation with non-indigenous people. The Miskito Indians in Nicaragua have had similar success.

Some Native American Tribes have recently become extremely wealthy because of a change in the law. They can now start casinos on their own land. Some people worry about the morality of this, but some of the profit has been used for improvements in education and health.

The meeting between western and indigenous cultures has not often been a happy one, but perhaps there is hope yet for the continued diversity of humankind.





Hello everyone,

just i read also the article and i found really an interesting article. while my reading the text, i compared with some countries which is now independent. Indigenous people have all time right in own land and they should have own language and culture. In past history we know some most governments of countries will destory indigenous places and build up new. Maybe new buildings are good but they require also, that indigenous people were banished to other places. Finally indigenous people will agonize. good luck all

Indigenous peoples have the same rights to live in their own way as any other people. On one hand, they should be respected by the governments of all countries. Their original natural lands should be preserved for themselves. Governments cannot force them to leave the land which would become a dam or a mine. Also, of course, some of them can be representatives in governments through local elections. On the other hand, they can decide their future, choose how they live, and change their living style by themselves. If they need education, we can help them build their own schools, where native languages are taught. If they want to be wealthy, they can open their lands for tourism. They can even go to cities and live there for ever based on their own willingness. All of these are their choices and not forced by anyone else.

To begin with I think there’s been misunderstanding the meaning of indigenous that they are ancient people.Just to clarify ,it means they are native no more or to put it in another way they have never moved from their home.

I am on the same way with the author but ,personally, I would argue with the number and I am sure they are absolutely much more what was written above because of the Arabian nations mostly the are indigenous.

I appreciate your effects and I feel an obligation to thank you.

I wonder about the number of Indigenous, 370 million is a correct number? Thus, what is the definition of Indigenous?

Hello longdq7,

You can look up the meanings of individual words or phrases in any of the many free online dictionaries available.

The number is an estimate, of course, but is accurate. Please note that it refers to the peoples (i.e. ethnic or cultural groups) worldwide - it is the number of people still living in their original territories, who have not moved from elsewhere, at least in identifiable history.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

Hi, admin team.
I just want to notify to you that the download source (pdf version) of this article is not matched with its origin on the website. Could you fix it as soon as possible because I usually print it out to do at home?
Thank you in advance.

Hello ivannguyen97,

Good news! I managed to find the correct pdf. I've updated the page so it is now available under Download on this page.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

Hello ivannguyen97,

Thank you very much for telling us about this error. I'm afraid I haven't been able to find the support pack for this page. I will take a more thorough look for it tomorrow, but I expect it was lost when we updated our site a few years ago. I'll add it to our list of things to fix, but it may take a little while before we can get the proper pdf uploaded. In the meantime, perhaps a different page would suit you?

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

Thank You Krik. I have to say that you just made my day at once! ;)

hello everybody I passed an exam in which there was this task
Packet sugar from the supermarket (1) extracted.... (extract) from either

sugar cane or sugar beet. These products (2) (mix)............. with hot

water, which (3) (dissolve)..................... their natural sugar. Sugar

(4) (also find)..................... in fruit some of which, such as dates and grapes,

(5) (contain)..................... very high amounts of sugar. To be a little more

specific, sugar should (6) (call)....................................... sucrose. Sucrose

(7) (make up)......................... of two substances: glucose, which

(8) (use).............................. for instant energy, and fructose, which

(9) (last)................... longer as a source of energy. The sugar in fruit is

mainly fructose. So when we (10) (eat).................. fruit, we

(11) (also eat) ..................quite large amounts of natural sugar. Some

scientists (12) (believe)............................ that too much sugar

(13) (eat).................................. in sweets, cake and biscuits. It (14)

(say)......................... to be generally bad for the health, although nothing (15)

(definitely prove)........................... so far. However, it (16) (known)............................ that sugar

(17) (cause).......................... tooth decay. As one expert put it: 'If other foods

(18) (damage) ......................... our body as much as sugar (19)

(damage)...................................... our teeth, they (20) (ban).......................... immediately'

Please an expert say me what the right answers are ? I want to check my own answers !! please as soon as you can ? I'll be so thankful !!!!