In assignments, sources are referred to by the name of the author and the date of publication (the Harvard reference system), or by a number (the Vancouver reference system).

Most assignments in the Arts and Humanities use the Harvard system.

Harvard references can be ‘integral’ or ‘non-integral’. In integral references the author’s name (or an equivalent proper noun) is part of the sentence. For example:

Mercer (2001:21) states that conversations are 'not necessarily made up of physical objects and events around the speaker'


Knapp has proposed that the most likely shipping route would have followed anti-clockwise currents.

In non-integral references proper names and dates are provided within brackets. For example:

A study on sitcom humour (Nunn 2005) suggested that 'humour can be derived from the deliberate scripting of flouted maxims'


The site has been interpreted as a specialised food processing site (Simmons 1999:310).

For every million words in the Arts & Humanities assignments there are about 119 integral citations and 544 non-integral citations. Quotations are used quite frequently.

In the Art and Humanities assignments ibid is only used occasionally, and op. cit. is very rare.

Reporting Verbs

Here are some verbs typically used for reporting other people's work in Arts & Humanities.

Reporting Verbs in Arts & Humanities Examples