In assignments, sources are referred to by the name of the author and the date of publication (the Harvard reference system), or by a number (the Vancouver reference system). References using the numerical Vancouver system often place the number within brackets.
About 82% of references in the Physical Sciences assignments follow the numerical Vancouver system. The rest follow the Harvard system.
When using the Vancouver system you do not necessarily name the authors of your source. In these examples the authors are not named:
The relative efficiency is defined as the ratio of the photopeak flux to the total flux recorded .
Source  is recommended as a brief introduction to Scan.
In this example the authors are named:
Middleton and Sivaswamy suggest that hexagonal sampling exploit the oblique effect in human vision thereby providing a better image when viewed by humans .
Harvard references can be ‘integral’ or ‘non-integral’.
In integral references the author’s name (or an equivalent proper noun) is part of the sentence. For example:
Levitt and Lawton (1990) posited three basic questions that define robot mapping and navigation.
As Trotman-Dickenson (1996) explains on page 406, there were three different methods to encourage public transport to and from the airport.
In non-integral references proper names and dates are provided within brackets. For example:
The ratio of specific heat at constant pressure to the specific heat at constant volume was measured using a variation on the Rüchardt method (Rüchardt 1929).
For every million words in the Physical Sciences assignments there are about 17 integral citations and 32 non-integral citations.
Ibid and op. cit. do not occur in the Physical Sciences assignments.
Here are some verbs typically used for reporting other people's work in Physical Sciences.
|Reporting Verbs in Physical Sciences.||Examples|