Level: beginner

this and these

We use this (singular) and these (plural) as pronouns:

  • to talk about people or things near us:

This is a nice cup of tea.
Whose shoes are these?

  • to introduce people:

This is Janet.
These are my friends John and Michael.

Be careful!

We say, This is John and this is Michael. (NOT These are John and Michael.)

  • to begin a conversation on the phone:

Hello, this is David. Can I speak to Sally?

that and those

We use that (singular) and those (plural) as pronouns to talk about things that are not near us:

What's that?
Those are very expensive shoes.
This is our house, and that's Rebecca's house over there.

Demonstratives

MultipleChoice_MTU4MjM=

We also use that to reply to something someone has said:

'Shall we go to the cinema?'  'Yes, that’s a good idea.'
'I've got a new job.'  'That's great.'
'I'm very tired.'  'Why is that?'

Replies with that's 1

Matching_MTU4MjQ=

Replies with that's 2

GapFillTyping_MTU4NDM=

With nouns

We can also use this, these, that and those with nouns. We use this and these for people or things near us:

We have lived in this house for twenty years.
Have you read all of these books?

and that and those for people or things that are not near us:

Who lives in that house?
Who are those people?

Demonstratives with nouns

GapFillDragAndDrop_MTU4NDQ=

 

Comments

Is the sentence
"Only those should kill others who are prepared to die themselves"
correct?

The intention is to tell a person that they should only kill someone if they themselves have the resolve to die.

A quick response is appreciated.

Hello tomatosama,

The word order in the sentence should be different:

Only those who are prepared to die themselves should kill others.

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Is the way I put it wrong or does it only feel clumsy?

I mean, Is this change necessary?

Hello tomatosama,

Yes, the change is necessary. The relative clause 'who are prepared to die themselves' must go immediately after its antecedent ('those').

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Thank you :D

Please if you could help me:

What is correct: because THESE or THOSE disputes are accompanied by growing military power....

Hello emirjuve,

Both are possible. It depends on the context and the co-text. I would say 'these' is more likely if you have just referred to the disputes, and 'those' is really only likely if you are discussing different kinds of disputes and want to emphasise that you are referring back to an earlier kind.

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Thank you very much. Best...

What are these?
They are my posters. (it's in the text book)

What are these?
These are my posters. (is this variant possible?)

ps to get the comment page i need to write a comment in any case + verify it,
why can't i reply to a person directly?
VERY inconvenient

Hello JuliaF,

I think the earlier answer deals with this very clearly. As Kirk said, we use 'these' when we want to distinguish between two alternatives. We would only say 'These are my posters' if we have, for example, several groups of posters and we want to say 'these are mine, not those'.

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

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