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Level: beginner

this and these

We use this (singular) and these (plural) as pronouns:

  • to talk about people or things near us:

This is a nice cup of tea.
Whose shoes are these?

  • to introduce people:

This is Janet.
These are my friends John and Michael.

Be careful!

We say, This is John and this is Michael. (NOT These are John and Michael.)

  • to begin a conversation on the phone:

Hello, this is David. Can I speak to Sally?

that and those

We use that (singular) and those (plural) as pronouns to talk about things that are not near us:

What's that?
Those are very expensive shoes.
This is our house, and that's Rebecca's house over there.



We also use that to reply to something someone has said:

'Shall we go to the cinema?'  'Yes, that’s a good idea.'
'I've got a new job.'  'That's great.'
'I'm very tired.'  'Why is that?'

Replies with that's 1


Replies with that's 2


With nouns

We can also use this, these, that and those with nouns. We use this and these for people or things near us:

We have lived in this house for twenty years.
Have you read all of these books?

and that and those for people or things that are not near us:

Who lives in that house?
Who are those people?

Demonstratives with nouns




Hey !
I just found this website & made my account here hoping that it will prove helpful for me in some aspect.
can you please elaborate me the exact meaning of "irony" and its use in our life. I'm bit confused in it.
thanks you !

Hey zahra zaidi,
Welcome to LearnEnglish!  For a definition of 'irony' why not use the Cambridge Dictionaries Online search tool on the right?  You'll get a definition, some example sentences and the pronunciation there.
As far as the use of irony in our lives goes, I don't think I can even begin to describe it!  People have written books on the subject.  Irony is often used as a form of humour, as a way of making a point either more strongly or in a more subtle way, as a way of making others smile or of hurting others.  It's used in all these ways and more, and it's used very very often.
I hope that begins to help you with your question!
Best wishes,
The LearnEnglish Team

to introduce ourselves on the phone,we use this is john or it is john ?

Hello kpasali,
We can actually use either, but the sentence is a little different:
'Hi, this is John'
'Hi, it's John here'
Best wishes,
The LearnEnglish Team

Hi !
I think we say this is john.

Can you tell me the difference between the "Look there" and "Look over there".
Thank you

Hi Evamanukyan,
Did you have a specific context in mind? The difference between them depends somewhat on context, but in general there refers to a place that is distant from the speaker and over there refers to a place that is either more distant from the speaker or that the speaker is pointing to.
If you have any other questions, please let us know.
Best wishes,
The LearnEnglish Team

These are our book << This is my book
Those are our book >> That is my book

Are these sentences are corrects?
Look at this
Look at that
Look at there