Level: beginner

English clauses always have a subject:

His father has just retired. > He was a teacher. (NOT Was a teacher.)
I'm waiting for my wife.She is late. (NOT Is late.)

... except for the imperative:

Go away.
Play it again, please.


If there is no other subject, we use there to talk about:

  • where or when something is:

There's an interesting book on the shelf.
There'll be an eclipse of the moon tonight.

  • a number or amount:

There is plenty of bread left.
There were twenty people at the meeting.

  • something existing or happening:

There's a small problem.
There was a nasty fight.


We use it to talk about:

  • times and dates:              

It's nearly one o'clock.
It's my birthday.

  • the weather:

It's raining.
It's a lovely day.
It was getting cold.

We use it with the verb be and an –ing form or to-infinitive to express opinions:

It's great living here.
It's nice to meet you.

Subjects of sentences


it and there as dummy subjects 1


it and there as dummy subjects 2



What about the following,which one is correct or better?Can anyone clarify these for me please ?
"It is no use......"
"There is no use......"
"there is no denial......"
"it is no denial...."

Hello Queenie-Chan,

Both of the first two phrases are commonly used. For example, 'The car won't start. It's no use (to try anymore) or 'There's no use in wasting our time trying to start the car'.

I'm afraid the other two phrases are not correct. 'there's no denying' is a common phrase -- you can see a definition and example sentence in the Cambridge Dictionary entry for 'deny'.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

I hope you all are fine,
Suppose there is a TV in a room, someone (blind possibly so not able to see
the TV) asks: "are there any TVs in this room?"
NOW my question is:
what is the correct answer? "Yes, there are. There's a TV ..." or since
there's only one TV; "Yes, there is. There's a TV..."
If will be really thankful if you answer the question.

Hello Veteran,

The most precise answer in the second one, but the first one is not wrong, especially since you correct yourself as you speak (changing from plural to singular when specifying the number).

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

Many thanks

First task Total score is 10 out of 10 (100%) and the second task I have
Total score is 10 out of 14 (71%)

Hi dears ,

I wounder about the following sentence ;

"_____’s red wine or white. Which would you prefer?"

why we use ( there ) instead of (it) ?!

Although the speaker was given an option using a preposition (or) . I think if they used ( and ) it would be more suitable for ( there ) but using ( or ) gives the feeling to use ( it).

Please advise


Hello again Nour,

In this case, you're not saying that a bottle of wine is red or that it's white. You're saying that there are two options (red wine and white wine). Since you're not identifying a bottle of wine, but rather saying that two options exist, 'there' is the correct form.

Using 'and' or 'or' doesn't affect the choice of 'it' or 'there'. You could say 'there's red wine and white wine', though since you say 'which would you prefer?' after, 'or' is better since it implies a choice of one or the other.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

Thank you very much for your quick reply :) I really appreciate that.

Why we use indefenite article in this clause? We can't use definite article with "there"?
There is a party at Nick’s tonight.