Level: intermediate

The past perfect is made from the verb had and the past participle of a verb:

The past perfect continuous is made from had been and the -ing form of a verb:

had been working there for a year.
They had been painting the bedroom.

The past perfect is used in the same way as the present perfect, but it refers to a time in the past, not the present. We use the past perfect:

• for something that started in the past and continued up to a given time in the past:

When George died, he and Anne had been married for nearly fifty years.
She didn't want to move. She had lived in Liverpool all her life.

For this use, we often use the past perfect continuous:

She didn't want to move. She had been living in Liverpool all her life.
Everything was wet. It had been raining for hours.

• for something that happened several times before a point in the past and continued after that point:

He was a wonderful guitarist. He had been playing ever since he was a teenager.
He had written three books and he was working on another one.

• when we are reporting our experience up to a point in the past:

I was pleased to meet George. I hadn’t met him before, even though I had met his wife several times.

• for something that happened in the past and is important at a later time in the past

I couldn't get into the house. I had lost my keys.
Teresa wasn't at home. She had gone shopping.

We often use expressions with for and since with the past perfect:

I was sorry when the factory closed. I had worked there for ten years
I had been watching that programme every week since it started, but I missed the last episode.

We do not normally use the past perfect continuous with stative verbs. We use the past perfect simple instead:

Up until that moment, I'd never believed (NOT been believing) in astrology.

Past perfect

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Past perfect and past simple

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### Past perfect and hypotheses

We can also use the past perfect to make hypotheses about the past (when we imagine something). See these pages:

2)She began to cry after I reprimanded her.
She began to cry after I had reprimanded her.

Hello Mohd Zaffar,

The second sentence is incorrect because we do not mix a present perfect form ('has began') with a finished past time reference ('before I asked').

The other three are all possible. However, which is required will depend upon the context in which it is used. We can't provide long explanations of multiple forms like this in these comments sections. If you can describe the particular context for us then we can tell you which example would best fit, however.

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Hello sir , where I can get the explanation of different use of these type of sentences in different contexts?
Thanking you

1)The lady prayed to the lord Buddha that her son be restored to life.
3) The man asked his son that he go to Agra by car.
Sir, in all these three sentences above are of past subjective mood. How we come to know that the sentences are of indirect prayer, indirect advise, and indirect order respectively.
Thanking you

Hello Mohd Zaffar,

Grammar determines how the sentence is formed but the communicative use of a sentence depends upon several things: the lexis (the vocabulary), the context and the speaker's intention as well as the grammar structure used. In your examples the key element is the particular item of vocabulary used: pray, advise and ask.

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Hi,

With reference to your example above: "They had been staying with us since the previous week". May I know why the past perfect is used rather than the present perfect, as in "they have been staying with us since the previous week". my queries are:

a) Wouldn't the present perfect continuous do a better job of conveying the meaning that they stayed with us last week, and have continued to do so up to the present?

b) and if the present perfect continuous is applicable, would it be grammatical id I used the present perfect simple rather than continuous, as in "they have stayed with us since last week"?

c) lastly, would there be any difference between the present perfect continuous versus the present perfect (as in they have been staying versus they have stayed with us..since last week)?

Tim

Hello Tim,

In 'They had been staying with us since the previous week', the people are not still staying with us now in the present (a). The present perfect continuous would mean this, but not the past perfect continuous. The present perfect simple doesn't work as well as the present perfect continuous, because the latter puts more focus on an unfinished action -- in this case, those people still staying with us is an unfinished action (b). The present perfect simple would sound a bit odd here, because, as I mentioned in the last sentence, the action is clearly unfinished (c). See the page I linked to for more on this.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hi,
could you please explain me the usage of past tenses in the following sentence?

"The three vases, which were produced during the Qing dynasty in the 17th century, had stood on the windowsill at the Museum in Cambridge for forty years".

I can't understand why we should use past simple in the first part of the sentence, although this event had happened before the vases appeared in the Museum.

Thanks