Level: intermediate

Past tense

There are two tenses in English – past and present.

The past tense in English is used:

  • to talk about the past
  • to talk about hypotheses (when we imagine something)
  • for politeness.

There are four past tense forms in English:

Past simple: I worked
Past continuous: I was working
Past perfect: I had worked
Past perfect continuous: I had been working

We use these forms:

  • to talk about the past:

He worked at McDonald's. He had worked there since July.
He was working at McDonald's. He had been working there since July.

  • to refer to the present or future in hypotheses:

It might be dangerous. Suppose they got lost.

This use is very common in wishes:

I wish it wasn't so cold.

and in conditions with if:

He could get a new job if he really tried.
If Jack was playing, they would probably win.

For hypotheses, wishes and conditions in the past, we use the past perfect:

It was very dangerous. What if you had got lost?
I wish I hadn't spent so much money last month.
I would have helped him if he had asked.

and also to talk about the present in a few polite expressions:

Excuse me, I was wondering if this was the train for York.
I just hoped you would be able to help me.

Past tense 1


Past tense 2



Hello sir , my question is - what is the difference between the following tense .
1- past simple & past continuous & past perfect & past perfect continuous.
2- similarly in case of present forms.

Hello yogesh mani tripathi,

I'm afraid that's a question that would need an entire book - or several books - to answer!  In the comments we have space to answer specific question rather than to explain whole chunks of English grammar.  I recommend you work through the verb part of the grammar section on LearnEnglish.  This will take you some time, but it's a very big question which you're asking!

Best wishes,



The LearnEnglish Team

Hi sir
these conditional sentences are correct

1=If I went to a friend's house for dinner, I usually took a bottle of wine or some flowers. I don't do that anymore.
2=When I had a day off from work, I often went to the beach. Now, I never get time off.
3=If the weather was nice, she often walked to work. Now, she usually drives.
4=Jerry always helped me with my homework when he had time. But he doesn't do that anymore.

Hi Learner S,

Yes, those sentences are all correct.  The structure here is similar to a zero conditional [if + present, (then) + present], with the difference that here the 'always true' information is in the past - it was always true but now is not.

Best wishes,



The LearnEnglish Team

Hi sir
Could you please explain what is difference between conditional sentences and hypothetical sentences..............Is it the unreal conditional are hypothetical and what should we say about real conditional sentences...........I couldn't find any example of difference between real conditional and unreal conditional sentences.........Could you please explain the difference.............

Hello Learner S,

Something is hypothetical if we are not sure whether or not it is true; something is conditional if it depends on something else.  A sentence may be both hypothetical and conditional, course, and this is often the case and results in the two terms being used interchangeably with some examples.

You can find out more about hypothetical and conditional sentences on this page and this page, and  more about conditional forms on this page and this page.

Best wishes,



The LearnEnglish Team

Hi sir
1=If he were French, he would live in Paris.
2=If she were rich, she would buy a yacht.
These are present hypothetical....
The past hypothetical of these sentences
1=If he had been a french,he would have been lived in Paris.
2=If she had been rich,she would have been bought a yacht
Am I right?

Hello Learner S,

Those are almost correct, but you have one extra word in each sentence.  The correct sentences would be:

If he had been French, he would have lived in Paris.

If she had been rich, she would have bought a yacht.

Best wishes,



The LearnEnglish Team


I thought when we use 'IF' it means that is a conditional sentence.But in question 7 and 8 in this exercise they said that they aren't conditional sentences.Could you explain how we identify these things?

Thank you.

Hello bimsara,

I think you've misinterpreted the answers to these questions.  It does not say that they are not conditionals; it simply explains the use of the past tense in each sentence.  It is quite possible to form a conditional without a past tense.  Indeed, often there is a choice of using present + will (a first conditional) or past + would (second conditional), and there are various reasons why you might choose the latter, including politeness. In other words, just because the reason for the use of the past tense is, say, politness, it does not mean that the sentence is not a conditional sentence.

Best wishes,



The LearnEnglish Team