Level: beginner


We use may, might and could to say that something is possible, but not certain:

They may come by car. (= Maybe they will come by car.)
They might be at home. (= Maybe they are at home.)
If we don't hurry, we could be late. (= Maybe we will be late.)

We use can to make general statements about what is possible:

It can be very cold here in winter. (= It is sometimes very cold here in winter.)
You can easily get lost in this town. (= People often get lost in this town.)

Be careful!

We do not use can to talk about specific events:

A: Where's John?
B: I'm not sure. He may/might/could be 
(NOT can) in his office.

Notice the difference in meaning between can and may/might/could:

That dog can be dangerous.
(= Sometimes that dog is dangerous. I know.)

That dog may/might/could be dangerous.
(= Perhaps that dog is dangerous. I don't know.)

can and may/might/could


Level: intermediate

We use may have, might have or could have to make guesses about the past:

I haven't received your letter. It may have got lost in the post.
It's ten o'clock. They might have arrived by now.
Where are they? They could have got lost.

We use could to make general statements about the past:

It could be very cold there in winter. (= It was sometimes very cold there in winter.)
You could easily get lost in that town. (= People often got lost in that town.)

could and could have



Level: beginner

We use can't or cannot to say that something is impossible:

That can't be true.
You cannot be serious.

Level: intermediate

We use can't have or couldn't have to say that a past event was impossible:

They know the way here. They can't have got lost!
If Jones was at work until six, he couldn't have done the murder.


Level: beginner

We use must to show we are sure something is true and we have reasons for our belief:

It's getting dark. It must be quite late.
You haven’t eaten all day. You must be hungry.

We use should to suggest something is true and we have reasons for our suggestion:

Ask Miranda. She should know.
It's nearly six o'clock. They should arrive soon.

Level: intermediate

We use must have and should have for the past:

They hadn't eaten all day. They must have been hungry.
You look happy. You must have heard the good news.
It's nearly eleven o'clock. They should have arrived by now.

Probability 1


Probability 2


Probability 3


Probability 4


Probability 5




A thorough illustration, as always. Now I got it. Thank you so much Peter.


if we are talk about the past..- It is nearly eleven o'clock. They should have arrived by now, is right -or- It was nearly eleven o'clock. they should have arrived by now??

Hello Apurva Shah,

If you are speaking of the past, in most contexts you would say 'It was nearly eleven o'clock'. But please note that 'by now' doesn't work in the past, as 'now' refers to the present. Therefore the end of your sentence should be something like 'They should have arrived by then (or: 'by that time')'.

Best wishes,
The LearnEnglish Team

if i am not certain about a past event
1.Then which one should i use could have+pp or might have+pp or may have+pp
2.or all mean same and can be used interchangeably.
please explain in the light of the above examples that you have used above

It’s ten o’clock. They might have arrived now.

They could have arrived hours ago.

they may have arrived by now

Hi imran_000,

In the specific context you mention, all three modal verbs structures you list mean the same thing - they can be used interchangeably.

Best wishes,
The LearnEnglish Team

thanks for your quick response
can you please explain as where to use may have+pp,might have+pp and could have+pp with some examples all in past possibility.


Hell oimran_000,

Examples of exactly this are on the page:

We use could have, might have and may have to show that something was possible now or at some time in the past:

It’s ten o’clock. They might have arrived now.
They could have arrived hours ago.

We can use all of these modal verbs interchangeably; all three have the same meaning. If any of these examples are not clear, or if you have any specific questions about them, then please let us know.

Best wishes,



The LearnEnglish Team

thanks peter for helping me to understand modal verbs.

i want to know that if all three may have+pp,might have+pp and could have+pp can be used interchangeabily then why do we use three different modal verbs with pp to express the same meaning....hope u understand my question

Hi imran_000,

I'm afraid it's difficult to explain why this is - languages evolve over time in an organic manner, and that's just how English has developed. As far as I know, all natural languages have redundant forms.

Best wishes,
The LearnEnglish Team

Can I use couldn't for possibility in the second conditional sentence? For example, If I lived in a big city, I couldn't breathe fresh air every morning.