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Reciprocal pronouns

Level: intermediate

We use the reciprocal pronouns each other and one another when two or more people do the same thing.

Peter and Mary helped each other.
Peter helped Mary and Mary helped Peter.
We sent one another Christmas cards.
We sent them a Christmas card and they sent us a Christmas card.
They didn't look at each other.
X didn't look at Y and Y didn't look at X.

We also use the possessive forms each other's and one another's:

They helped to look after each other's children.
The group of students often stayed in one another's houses.

Note that we do not use reciprocal pronouns as the subject of a clause.

Reciprocal pronouns 1


Be careful!

Reciprocal pronouns and plural reflexive pronouns (ourselves, yourselves, themselves) have different meanings:

John and Fred killed each other.
John killed Fred and Fred killed John.
John and Fred killed themselves.
John killed himself and Fred killed himself.

Reciprocal pronouns 2




Hi there,

In the questions to complete about reciprocal pronouns, question number 4 is ok as "I gave him a present and he gave me a present. We gave each other presents."

I'd like to know your opinion on "I gave him a present and he gave me a present. We gave presents to each other."

Thank you in advance for your answer.


Hi Jorge,

That is fine. You can use both constructions with give:

give someone something

give something to someone


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

Thank you for your reply, Peter.

Hello ..
I wanna ask about sth .. u wrote above in the explanation part "Traditionally, each other refers to two people and one another refers to more than two people" , but it contrasts with the examples u mentioned ;
Peter and Mary helped "one another". >> refers to TWO PEOPLE
= Peter helped Mary and Mary helped Peter.
We sent "each other" Christmas cards. >> refers to MORE than two people
= We sent them a Christmas card and they sent us a Christmas card.
thanks in advance for your help :)

Hello marwa kassoumeh,

The explanation here is as follows:

Traditionally, each other refers to two people and one another refers to more than two people, but this distinction is disappearing in modern English.

In other words, this is a rule which is disappearing. In the past it was different, but in modern English the distinction is disappearing. As our examples represent current use they do not show this distinction.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

I got it .. thank u so much :)

Good evening
In spite of difference among each other and one another, according above examples and description, we can use both of them instead of each other and there is no difference between them in modern English, am I right?


Hello Fatemeh Roostaei,

In general they are used interchangeably in modern English, yes. It is possible that there may be some contexts in which one or the other is not normally used but I cannot think of any.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

They didn’t look at one another.

i have questioned above the word. my question is why u using "at" preposition that area.
actually it will use "at" preposition for place. there is no mention place. i worrying about that. pls clarify.

Hello taj25,

We use 'at' to describe place but we can use it in other ways too. For example, we can use it to express time ('at six o'clock'), price ('three shares at $100 each') and direction ('I threw the ball at him').

Your example, I would say, is similar to the last of these: the preposition 'at' shows the direction of the looking.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team