Level: intermediate

Reporting and summarising

When we want to report what people say, we don't usually try to report their exact words. We usually give a summary, for example:

Direct speech (exact words):

Mary: Oh dear. We've been walking for hours! I'm exhausted. I don't think I can go any further. I really need to stop for a rest.
Peter: Don't worry. I'm not surprised you're tired. I'm tired too. I'll tell you what, let's see if we can find a place to sit down, and then we can stop and have our picnic.

Reported speech (summary):

When Mary complained that she was tired out after walking so far, Peter said they could stop for a picnic.

Reporting verbs

When we want to report what people say, we use reporting verbs. Different reporting verbs have different patterns, for example:

Mary complained (that) she was tired.
(verb + that clause)

She asked if they could stop for a rest.
(verb + if clause)

Peter told her not to worry.
(verb + to-infinitive)

He suggested stopping and having a picnic.
(verb + -ing form) 

See reporting verbs with that, wh- and if clauses, verbs followed by the infinitive, verbs followed by the -ing form.

Reporting and summarising 1


Reporting and summarising 2


Tenses in reported speech

When reporting what people say or think in English, we need to remember that the rules for tense forms in reported speech are exactly the same as in the rest of the language.

This is a letter that Andrew wrote ten years ago:

am 22 years old and I am at university studying engineering. I take my final exams next month and I will finish university in July.

want to take a year off and travel round the world. I will need to make some money while I am travelling, so I would like to learn to teach English as a second language so that I can make some money while I am abroad. A friend of mine has recommended your course very highly. She also gave me some details, but I would like to ask a few more questions.

What courses do you have in the summer and when do they start? How much do the courses cost? Is there an examination at the end?

look forward to hearing from you.


Andrew Brown

If we wanted to report what Andrew said in his letter, we might say something like this: 

Andrew said that when he was 22, he was an engineering student in his last month at university. He wanted to travel abroad after he had finished his course at the university, but he would need to earn some money while he was abroad so he wanted to learn to teach English as a foreign language. A friend had recommended a course but Andrew needed more information, so he wrote to the school and asked them when their courses started and how much they were. He also wanted to know if there was an examination at the end of the course.

We would naturally use past tense forms to talk about things which happened ten years ago. So, tenses in reports and summaries in English are the same as in the rest of the language.

Sometimes we can choose between a past tense form and a present tense form. If we're talking about the past but we mention something that's still true, we can use the present tense:

John said he'd stayed at the Shangri-la because it's the best hotel in town.
Mary said she enjoyed the film because Robert de Niro is her favourite actor.
Helen said she loves visiting New York.

or the past tense:

John said he'd stayed at the Shangri-la because it was the best hotel in town.
Mary said she enjoyed the film because Robert de Niro was her favourite actor.
Helen said she loved visiting New York.

If we're talking about something that everybody knows is true, we normally use the present tense:

Michael said he'd always wanted to climb Everest because it's the highest mountain in the world.
Mary said she loved visiting New York because it's such an exciting city.


When you report a question in indirect speech , do you always use the past tense? E.g., Someone asked, "do you have change?" reporting this I say, "he asked if I had change and I said I do." But knowing that you have the change before reporting it, can you say "he asked if I have change"

Hi, Just as it with indirect speeches that you can omit the word "that" in many cases, can the same apply when paraphrasing? E.g. indirect speech: "John said (that) the company's policies are too much to bear."
Paraphrasing : "John said (that) the policies of the company are just irrational."

Hello Timmosky,

Yes, that is correct. 'That' is optional here.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

So I've realized I ask the most questions here. I'm going through a phase, bear with me sirs. I have a question as regards the proper usage of indirect speeches. In most cases I do forget exactly what was said but I have a memory of what was meant and I build my words based on those. E.g Mary said "I'll not tolerate any barbaric acts from any of my students, please ensure to comply with the rules." when reporting this using indirect speech I tend to say "she said she wouldn't accept any thugery acts from her students and further implored them to obey the rules." is this a correct way to use indirect speech because I changed some words but I believe they still mean the same thing. Can we change words but just make sure it connotes the same thing in indirect speeches.

Hello Timmosky,

That's really up to you, i.e. it is something you must decide depending on the context and your intentions. If you're doing a grammar exercise on an official English exam, for example, you should probably avoid rephrasing the direct speech. On the other hand, if it's a writing task on an exam, it might be a good idea to rephrase.

Similarly, if you're reporting what someone said in a context where precision is important (e.g. court, translation), you would presumably want to make your indirect speech as close to the direct speech as possible. But if you're summarising what someone says in an informal context, rephrasing as you wish is probably just fine.

I hope this helps you think about how you want to approach the matter.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

When you say summarising what someone says in an informal context, "summarize" here is the same thing as "reporting" what someone said, right?

Hello Tim,

Not quite. Summarising means to shorten and provide the key information, whereas reporting suggests passing on what was actually said in more detail.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

So which is used in indirect speech? Just like I wrote earlier, when speaking, I tend to change the original words said and just paraphrase( but still retain the meaning of the sentence). Is this the same as summarising?

Thanks Kirk I also have another contextual question similar to one I've asked before. When relating someone else's opinion about me which isn't true do I use the present tense or past. E.g. "she thinks i'm a virgin, but I'm not" another example "you think I'm not intellectually sound, but I am" ....are these sentences ok or do one use was instead of am in those situations e.g "she thinks I was a virgin, but I'm not"

Hello Timmosky,

Yes, these are ok -- I'd say the present tense is the best choice here.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team