Level: intermediate

Reporting and summarising

When we want to report what people say, we don't usually try to report their exact words. We usually give a summary, for example:

Direct speech (exact words):

Mary: Oh dear. We've been walking for hours! I'm exhausted. I don't think I can go any further. I really need to stop for a rest.
Peter: Don't worry. I'm not surprised you're tired. I'm tired too. I'll tell you what, let's see if we can find a place to sit down, and then we can stop and have our picnic.

Reported speech (summary):

When Mary complained that she was tired out after walking so far, Peter said they could stop for a picnic.

Reporting verbs

When we want to report what people say, we use reporting verbs. Different reporting verbs have different patterns, for example:

Mary complained (that) she was tired.
(verb + that clause)

She asked if they could stop for a rest.
(verb + if clause)

Peter told her not to worry.
(verb + to-infinitive)

He suggested stopping and having a picnic.
(verb + -ing form) 

See reporting verbs with that, wh- and if clauses, verbs followed by the infinitive, verbs followed by the -ing form.

Reporting and summarising 1


Reporting and summarising 2


Tenses in reported speech

When reporting what people say or think in English, we need to remember that the rules for tense forms in reported speech are exactly the same as in the rest of the language.

This is a letter that Andrew wrote ten years ago:

am 22 years old and I am at university studying engineering. I take my final exams next month and I will finish university in July.

want to take a year off and travel round the world. I will need to make some money while I am travelling, so I would like to learn to teach English as a second language so that I can make some money while I am abroad. A friend of mine has recommended your course very highly. She also gave me some details, but I would like to ask a few more questions.

What courses do you have in the summer and when do they start? How much do the courses cost? Is there an examination at the end?

look forward to hearing from you.


Andrew Brown

If we wanted to report what Andrew said in his letter, we might say something like this: 

Andrew said that when he was 22, he was an engineering student in his last month at university. He wanted to travel abroad after he had finished his course at the university, but he would need to earn some money while he was abroad so he wanted to learn to teach English as a foreign language. A friend had recommended a course but Andrew needed more information, so he wrote to the school and asked them when their courses started and how much they were. He also wanted to know if there was an examination at the end of the course.

We would naturally use past tense forms to talk about things which happened ten years ago. So, tenses in reports and summaries in English are the same as in the rest of the language.

Sometimes we can choose between a past tense form and a present tense form. If we're talking about the past but we mention something that's still true, we can use the present tense:

John said he'd stayed at the Shangri-la because it's the best hotel in town.
Mary said she enjoyed the film because Robert de Niro is her favourite actor.
Helen said she loves visiting New York.

or the past tense:

John said he'd stayed at the Shangri-la because it was the best hotel in town.
Mary said she enjoyed the film because Robert de Niro was her favourite actor.
Helen said she loved visiting New York.

If we're talking about something that everybody knows is true, we normally use the present tense:

Michael said he'd always wanted to climb Everest because it's the highest mountain in the world.
Mary said she loved visiting New York because it's such an exciting city.


Firstly, I want to thank you guys for your great work of imparting knowledge on people and I wanna say bless you. I have yet another question. Is there any real difference in the usage of "was saying" and "said". For example someone said: "don't place your bag there" and I'm reporting this. I think it can be: she said not to place my bag there or she was saying I shouldn't place my bag there..are both statements true. Thanks again

Hello Timmosky,

The choice here is between past simple and past continuous. In your example I would say that 'said' is the most likely choice. It is possible to use 'was saying' but it would require a very unusual context, such as her being interrupted as she was speaking.

You can read more about the past simple and continuous on this page, this page and this page.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

Okay I was taught that past continuous is used for actions going on in the past, so my first example had been completed in the past before I reported it. Another example she said "math is difficult for young learners" and I report as "she was telling me about the difficulty of maths for young learners"

Hello Timmosky,

It is quite possible to say both 'she told me' and 'she was telling me...' here but the continuous/progressive form needs a particular context. For example, if there is an implied interruption ('...was telling me... when I noticed that...') or if you want to emphasise that the telling is a repeated act ('...was telling me... for years and I never listened'). Aspect reflects the prespective of the speaker regarding the action, not the fact of the action itself.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team


I have some queries on reporting structure.

Should I always use past simple in the beginning of reporting clause or there are more choices? It seems to me two choices would be logical
I didn't know/I hadn't known

'I didn't know you smoked'(it is still true that the person smokes)
Is the only reason why to smoke is used in the past simple form because of the subject's knowing in the past? The subject reports his 'verbing' and also relates the time of the 'verbing.' If I am correct, I could say 'I didn't know you had smoked' and relate my knowing in the past of the past, and I also could relate the past and present, for example, I could say 'I didn't know you have been in Paris' because it is still true. Am I right?

'I knew she knew/knows you smoke'

Speaking about complex reporting, could I indicate her knowing, using other aspect than past and present simple? For example
'I knew she had known you smoke'

Thank you.

Hello JamalMkav,

If you say

I didn't know you smoked

then what has changed is that now you know this. We don't know if the sentence refers to the present as well as the past (the person still smokes) or just the past (the person smoked in the past but does not now). Of course, the context will make this clear. The smoking could be on one particular occasion or it could be a reference to a habit.

If we say

I didn't know you had smoked

then we are referring to a particular instance - one time - which was before another event in the past, not to a general habit.

The sentence

I didn't know you have been to Paris

would be very unusual, I think, and the past perfect form would be more likely. It is possible to mix tenses in this way. For example:

I'm sorry - I didn't know you are from Spain or I would have asked you.

However, certain examples are in common use and others are not. I would say that your example would be quite unusual.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

hello sir ,
could you please explain difference between IF and WHETHER.(how to choose the correct one)
Let me know if you need any help.
Let me know whether you need any help.

Hello dlis,

There is a very good summary of the difference on this page.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

in this example:
'Everybody knew that it was Henry’s birthday tomorrow'
why we didn't say .'Everybody knows that it is Henry’s birthday tomorrow.' because it's still tomorrow
and If I say that is it correct
and in these examples
'She said she is living there with them.'
'he said he can swim.'
why we didn't say 'says'
and please also in this example: 'Shakespeare said (that) all the world's a stage'
why we use the present tense here? I mean when backshift is important in the sentence?

Hello Mohamed,

The first of the first two sentences you ask about is not entirely correct - it would be better to say 'the next day' instead of 'tomorrow', because 'tomorrow' is used within the perspective of the present time. That sentence, which has a past verb ('knew') is not within the perspective of the present time, but rather the past. The second sentence, which is in the present, is correct.

In the next sentence, you could say 'she was living' and it would also be correct. It's also possible to use the present, too, though, and this makes the fact of her living there more present, but really it means the same thing. In the other examples of reported speech, the second part of each sentence contains a statement about something that doesn't change, and the present simple is used in such situations.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team