Level: intermediate

Reporting and summarising

When we want to report what people say, we don't usually try to report their exact words. We usually give a summary, for example:

Direct speech (exact words):

Mary: Oh dear. We've been walking for hours! I'm exhausted. I don't think I can go any further. I really need to stop for a rest.
Peter: Don't worry. I'm not surprised you're tired. I'm tired too. I'll tell you what, let's see if we can find a place to sit down, and then we can stop and have our picnic.

Reported speech (summary):

When Mary complained that she was tired out after walking so far, Peter said they could stop for a picnic.

Reporting verbs

When we want to report what people say, we use reporting verbs. Different reporting verbs have different patterns, for example:

Mary complained (that) she was tired.
(verb + that clause)

She asked if they could stop for a rest.
(verb + if clause)

Peter told her not to worry.
(verb + to-infinitive)

He suggested stopping and having a picnic.
(verb + -ing form) 

See reporting verbs with that, wh- and if clauses, verbs followed by the infinitive, verbs followed by the -ing form.

Reporting and summarising 1

GapFillDragAndDrop_MTY1NTE=

Reporting and summarising 2

GapFillTyping_MTY1NTI=

Tenses in reported speech

When reporting what people say or think in English, we need to remember that the rules for tense forms in reported speech are exactly the same as in the rest of the language.

This is a letter that Andrew wrote ten years ago:

am 22 years old and I am at university studying engineering. I take my final exams next month and I will finish university in July.

want to take a year off and travel round the world. I will need to make some money while I am travelling, so I would like to learn to teach English as a second language so that I can make some money while I am abroad. A friend of mine has recommended your course very highly. She also gave me some details, but I would like to ask a few more questions.

What courses do you have in the summer and when do they start? How much do the courses cost? Is there an examination at the end?

look forward to hearing from you.

Regards,

Andrew Brown

If we wanted to report what Andrew said in his letter, we might say something like this: 

Andrew said that when he was 22, he was an engineering student in his last month at university. He wanted to travel abroad after he had finished his course at the university, but he would need to earn some money while he was abroad so he wanted to learn to teach English as a foreign language. A friend had recommended a course but Andrew needed more information, so he wrote to the school and asked them when their courses started and how much they were. He also wanted to know if there was an examination at the end of the course.

We would naturally use past tense forms to talk about things which happened ten years ago. So, tenses in reports and summaries in English are the same as in the rest of the language.

Sometimes we can choose between a past tense form and a present tense form. If we're talking about the past but we mention something that's still true, we can use the present tense:

John said he'd stayed at the Shangri-la because it's the best hotel in town.
Mary said she enjoyed the film because Robert de Niro is her favourite actor.
Helen said she loves visiting New York.

or the past tense:

John said he'd stayed at the Shangri-la because it was the best hotel in town.
Mary said she enjoyed the film because Robert de Niro was her favourite actor.
Helen said she loved visiting New York.

If we're talking about something that everybody knows is true, we normally use the present tense:

Michael said he'd always wanted to climb Everest because it's the highest mountain in the world.
Mary said she loved visiting New York because it's such an exciting city.

Comments

hello sir ,
could you please explain difference between IF and WHETHER.(how to choose the correct one)
Let me know if you need any help.
or
Let me know whether you need any help.

Hello dlis,

There is a very good summary of the difference on this page.

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Hi,
in this example:
'Everybody knew that it was Henry’s birthday tomorrow'
why we didn't say .'Everybody knows that it is Henry’s birthday tomorrow.' because it's still tomorrow
and If I say that is it correct
and in these examples
'She said she is living there with them.'
'he said he can swim.'
why we didn't say 'says'
and please also in this example: 'Shakespeare said (that) all the world's a stage'
why we use the present tense here? I mean when backshift is important in the sentence?

Hello Mohamed,

The first of the first two sentences you ask about is not entirely correct - it would be better to say 'the next day' instead of 'tomorrow', because 'tomorrow' is used within the perspective of the present time. That sentence, which has a past verb ('knew') is not within the perspective of the present time, but rather the past. The second sentence, which is in the present, is correct.

In the next sentence, you could say 'she was living' and it would also be correct. It's also possible to use the present, too, though, and this makes the fact of her living there more present, but really it means the same thing. In the other examples of reported speech, the second part of each sentence contains a statement about something that doesn't change, and the present simple is used in such situations.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Thank you, Sir

Michael said he had always wanted to climb Everest because it is the highest mountain in the world
Sir if don't write "had" here then it is correct or not?

Hello krishnasisodia,

The sentence without 'had' is not grammatically wrong. Whether it is appropriate for a given context depends on the context, of course.

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Dear LearnEnglish team,

I've come across this sentence in reported speech that is leaving me a bit puzzled because of the verb tense used:
"Emmanuel Macron, a former economy minister in France’s Socialist government, announced that he would run for the French presidency next year (2017)."

Is it correct to use this "future in the past" if the presidential elections are still to be held? I was expecting "will" or "is going to" run for...Normally you can say something like: "He said (that) he would have lunch with us" after the lunch has either taken place or not but not before. Is there something I am missing?

I'd really appreciate a reply from you. Thanks.

Hello Knightrider,

The rule here is that if the verb is not moved backward in terms of time reference then the action or state is still current:

"I love you" (direct speech)

He said he loves her - it is still true now that he loves her

If the verb is moved backwards in terms of time reference then we do not know if the action or state is still current:

"I love you" (direct speech)

He said he loved her - we know that it was true when he said it, but we do not know if it is still true now; it may be, or it may not be

Therefore it is perfectly fine to use a verb form which has been moved back in reported speech in this context. It would also be fine to use 'will' in place of 'would'.

 

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Hello sir,

In the sentence " Everybody knew that it was Henry’s birthday tomorrow", shouldn't we change "tomorrow" to " the following day". And write the sentence as : Everybody knew that it was Henry's birthday the following day.

Pages