Level: intermediate

## Past events and situations

We use the past simple to talk about:

• something that happened once in the past:

The film started at seven thirty.
We arrived home before dark.

• something that was true for some time in the past:

Everybody worked hard through the winter.
We stayed with our friends in London.

When we talk about something that happened several times in the past, we use the past simple:

Most evenings, we stayed at home and watched DVDs.
Sometimes they went out for a meal.

or used to:

Most evenings, we used to stay at home and watch DVDs.
We used to go for a swim every morning.

or would:

Most evenings, he would take the dog for a walk.
They would often visit friends in Europe.

We do not normally use would with stative verbs. We use the past simple or used to instead:

He would looked much older than he does now. (NOT would look)
We would used to feel very cold in winter. (NOT would feel)

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We use the past continuous:

• for something that happened before and after a specific time in the past:

It was just after ten. I was watching the news on TV.
At half-time we were losing 1–0.

• for something that happened before and after another action in the past:

He broke his leg when he was playing rugby.
She saw Jim as he was driving away.

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## The past in the past

We use the past perfect when we are looking back from a point in the past to something earlier in the past:

Helen suddenly remembered she had left her keys in the car.
When we had done all our shopping, we caught the bus home.
They wanted to buy a new computer, but they hadn't saved enough money.
They would have bought a new computer if they had saved enough money.

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## The past and the present

We use the present perfect:

• for something that started in the past and continues in the present:

We have lived here since 2017. [and we still live here]
I have been working at the university for over ten years.

• for something that happened in the past but is important in the present:

I can't open the door. I've left my keys in the car.
Jenny has found a new job. She works in a supermarket now.

Be careful!
We do not use the present perfect with adverbials which refer to a finished past time:
 yesterday last week/month/year in 2010 when I was younger  etc.

I have seen that film yesterday.
We have just bought a new car last week.
When we were children we have been to California.

but we can use the present perfect with adverbials which refer to a time which is not yet finished:

 today this morning/week/year now that I am eighteen   etc.

Have you seen Helen today?
We have bought a new car this week.

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## The future in the past

When we talk about the future from a time in the past we use:

• would as the past tense of will:

He thought he would buy one the next day.
Everyone was excited. The party would be fun.

• was/were going to:

John was going to drive and Mary was going to follow on her bicycle.
It was Friday. We were going to set off the next day.

It was September. Mary was starting school the next week.
We were very busy. Our guests were arriving soon and we had to get their room ready.

## The past with modal verbs

could is the past tense of can:

You could get a good meal for a pound when I was a boy.

would is the past tense of will:

He said he would come but he forgot.

We use may have, might have and could have to show that something has possibly happened in the past:

I'll telephone him. He might have got home early.
She's very late. She could have missed her train.

We use should have as the past form of should:

I didn't know he was ill. He should have told me.
You shouldn't have spent so much money.

We use would have and could have to talk about something that was possible in the past but did not happen:

I could have gone to Mexico for my holiday but it was too expensive.
I would have called you, but I had forgotten my phone.
They would have gone out if the weather had been better.

Hello Jarek_O,

Strictly speaking, you could use the past simple in this sentence. This kind of sentence, however, is usually used to tell the story of how you witnessed an extraordinary event. In this use, since you're referring to a past event from a past perspective, the past perfect is nearly always the tense you see or hear used in it.

All the best,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Which one is correct?
I would have changed the plan , if I had known it.
or, I would have changed the plan , if I knew it.

Hello Vickyy Bhardwaj,

Grammatically speaking, both of these are possible, depending on the context. If you say 'had known' then you are describing a situation in the past which was not true:

I would have changed the plan , if I had known it. [you did not know it and you did not change the plan]

If you say 'knew' then you are talking about a true situation in the past and speculating about possible outcomes. We do not tend to use this when talking about ourselves because we know the outcomes made (so speculation is generally not possible). However, when talking about other people it is possible. For example:

I heard he studied French at Oxford University.

If he studied French at Oxford then he would have met Sarah. She studied French there too. [we know he studied French; we are speculating about his meeting Sarah]

As you can see, the context is very important here.

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Hi,
I don't know how much my question is exactly related to this topic however, I really hope to get an answer for it.
"I have been watching a movie before I come here" is it correct?
thank you

Hi Ali-k,

No, that is not a correct sentence. The actions in the sentence are all in the past (the speaker is at the place, so the coming was in the past. It's impossible to be sure without any kind of context, but I would suggest this:

I was watching a movie before I came here.

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Thank you Peter for your response

One more question : I have watched several movies, Now I am an expert movie critic.

Thanks

Hello Ali-k,

I'm not sure what the question is here but if you want to know if the sentence is correct then the answer is that it is correct grammatically.

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Hi Peter,

Yes that was my question, thanks again for your help.

Hi,
is this sentence correct?
She is going to buy a laptop after she finished (or?finishes) her summer job. ?

Hello Ali-k,

The correct form here is 'finishes' as the sentence refers to a real or likely future.

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team