Level: intermediate

## Past events and situations

We use the past simple to talk about:

• something that happened once in the past:

The film started at seven thirty.
We arrived home before dark.

• something that was true for some time in the past:

Everybody worked hard through the winter.
We stayed with our friends in London.

When we talk about something that happened several times in the past, we use the past simple:

Most evenings, we stayed at home and watched DVDs.
Sometimes they went out for a meal.

or used to:

Most evenings, we used to stay at home and watch DVDs.
We used to go for a swim every morning.

or would:

Most evenings, he would take the dog for a walk.
They would often visit friends in Europe.

We do not normally use would with stative verbs. We use the past simple or used to instead:

He would looked much older than he does now. (NOT would look)
We would used to feel very cold in winter. (NOT would feel)

Past simple, used to and would 1

MultipleSelection_MTY0NTY=

Past simple, used to and would 2

GapFillTyping_MTY0NTc=

We use the past continuous:

• for something that happened before and after a specific time in the past:

It was just after ten. I was watching the news on TV.
At half-time we were losing 1–0.

• for something that happened before and after another action in the past:

He broke his leg when he was playing rugby.
She saw Jim as he was driving away.

Past simple and past continuous 1

MultipleChoice_MTY0NTg=

Past simple and past continuous 2

GapFillTyping_MTY0NTk=

## The past in the past

We use the past perfect when we are looking back from a point in the past to something earlier in the past:

Helen suddenly remembered she had left her keys in the car.
When we had done all our shopping, we caught the bus home.
They wanted to buy a new computer, but they hadn't saved enough money.
They would have bought a new computer if they had saved enough money.

Past simple, continuous and perfect 1

MultipleChoice_MTY0NjE=

Past simple, continuous and perfect 2

GapFillTyping_MTY0NjM=

## The past and the present

We use the present perfect:

• for something that started in the past and continues in the present:

We have lived here since 2017. [and we still live here]
I have been working at the university for over ten years.

• for something that happened in the past but is important in the present:

I can't open the door. I've left my keys in the car.
Jenny has found a new job. She works in a supermarket now.

Be careful!
We do not use the present perfect with adverbials which refer to a finished past time:
 yesterday last week/month/year in 2010 when I was younger  etc.

I have seen that film yesterday.
We have just bought a new car last week.
When we were children we have been to California.

but we can use the present perfect with adverbials which refer to a time which is not yet finished:

 today this morning/week/year now that I am eighteen   etc.

Have you seen Helen today?
We have bought a new car this week.

Present perfect and past simple 1

MultipleChoice_MTYzMTU=

Present perfect and past simple 2

GapFillTyping_MTYzMTc=

## The future in the past

When we talk about the future from a time in the past we use:

• would as the past tense of will:

He thought he would buy one the next day.
Everyone was excited. The party would be fun.

• was/were going to:

John was going to drive and Mary was going to follow on her bicycle.
It was Friday. We were going to set off the next day.

It was September. Mary was starting school the next week.
We were very busy. Our guests were arriving soon and we had to get their room ready.

## The past with modal verbs

could is the past tense of can:

You could get a good meal for a pound when I was a boy.

would is the past tense of will:

He said he would come but he forgot.

We use may have, might have and could have to show that something has possibly happened in the past:

I'll telephone him. He might have got home early.
She's very late. She could have missed her train.

We use should have as the past form of should:

I didn't know he was ill. He should have told me.
You shouldn't have spent so much money.

We use would have and could have to talk about something that was possible in the past but did not happen:

I could have gone to Mexico for my holiday but it was too expensive.
I would have called you, but I had forgotten my phone.
They would have gone out if the weather had been better.

hello everybody,I would say if these sentences are correct:
1-It's been a long time since I spoke italian
2--It's been a long time since I have spoken italian
3-I haven't spoken italian for a long time
4-I haven't been speaking for a long time
what differences in meaning are there between the first one and the second one and between the third one and the fourth one?

Hello manuel24,

All of those sentences are correct. I don't think there is a difference in meaning between the first two sentences, and I think they are used interchangeably by most speakers. You could also use 'It's a long time since...' in each sentence. Again, the meaning does not change.

In the second pair of sentences the difference is subtle and more one of emphasis and context than anything else. I think the second sentence is more likely to be used when the person is in the middle of the conversation. In other words, while the person is speaking, they would say 'I haven't been speaking...' whereas 'I haven't spoken...' would be more likely before or after the conversation. However, as I said these are very subtle distinctions and certainly not fixed rules of any kind. You would be fine using the two forms interchangeably, I would say.

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

hello peter,which is the time period in the sentences -It's been a long time since I spoke italian and
-It's been a long time since I have spoken italian? it isn't a unfinished time and so shouldn't we only use the present perfect? why can we use the past tense?

Hello manuel24,

We often use since to refer back to a finished time in the past:

I've lived here since I was born.

This boxer has not lost since he became a professional.

I have been very busy since I started the new job.

In a way, the past form here is the more normal form. The past form (since I spoke) describes a finished time in the past, just like the examples above. The present perfect form (since I have spoken) is a rather odd construction which people use but which is conceptually rather strange. It has a sense of it's been a long time since I have been a person who has the experience of speaking Italian, I suppose. However, both are used in modern English and both are correct.

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

ok peter,as your explanation i think that i didn't understand the sense on the sentences at all.i understood that "It's been a long time since I spoke italian and
-It's been a long time since I have spoken italian" have a sense of "it's been a long time since the last time i spoke italian,so that they are a negative sentences,isn't it so?

Hello manuel24,

Yes, both sentences tell us that the person has not spoken Italian for a long time. That's correct, and that's what I explained in my earlier answer. The difference between them is quite subtle, as I said, and they are used interchangeably in most contexts. I don't know what you mean by 'negative sentences', however.

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

therefore they mean that the person don't speak italian at the moment.right?

Hello manuel24,

Not necessarily. To know this we would need to know the context in which the sentence is used. The speaker could be trying to speak Italian and say this as an explanation of why they are not very fluent: I'm sorry! It's been a long time since I have spoken Italian!

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

can you tell me a context in which we can say "It's been a long time since I spoke italian"?

Hello manuel24,

The context in my previous answer (a person having trouble speaking Italian and trying to explain this) is fine. As I said, the two forms can be used interchangeably.

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team