Level: intermediate


We use the verb wish or the phrase if only to talk about things which we want but which are not possible:

I wish I could see you next week.
If only we could stop for a drink.
I wish we had a bigger house.
They are always busy. If only they had more time.
John was very lazy at school. Now he wishes he had worked harder.

We use wish and if only with past tense forms:

  • We use past tense modals would and could to talk about wishes for the future:

I don't like my work. I wish I could get a better job.
That's a dreadful noise. I wish it would stop.
I always have to get home early. If only my parents would let me stay out later.

I don't like this place. I wish I lived somewhere more interesting.
These seats are very uncomfortable. I wish we were travelling first class.
I wish I was taller.
John wishes he wasn't so busy.
I'm freezing. If only it wasn't so cold.

  • After I/he/she/it, we can use were instead of was:

I wish I was/were taller.
John wishes he wasn't/weren't so busy.
I'm freezing. If only it wasn't/weren't so cold.

  • We use the past perfect to talk about wishes for the past:

I wish I had worked harder when I was at school.
Mary wishes she had listened to what her mother told her.
I wish I hadn’t spent so much money last month.

Wishes 1


Wishes 2


Hypotheses (things we imagine)


When we are talking about hypotheses, we use expressions like:

what if ... ? in case suppose (that) supposing (that) imagine (if/that)

We use these expressions:

We should phone them in case they are lost.
Those steps are dangerous. Suppose someone has an accident.

Imagine you won the lottery. What would you do with the money?
What if he lost his job? What would happen then?

Suppose you hadn't passed your exams. What would you have done?
What if he had lost his job? What would his wife have said?

Modal verbs

We use modals would and could for a hypothesis about the present or future:

We can't all stay in a hotel. It would be very expensive.
Drive carefully or you could have an accident.

We use would in the main clause and the past tense in a subordinate clause for a hypothesis about the present or future:

I would always help someone who really needed help.
I would always help someone if they really needed it.

We use modals with have to talk about something that did not happen in the past:

I didn't see Mary, or I might have spoken to her.
It's a pity Jack wasn't at the party. He would have enjoyed it.
Why didn't you ask me? I could have told you the answer.

We use would have in the main clause and the past perfect in a subordinate clause to talk about something that did not happen in the past:

I would have helped anyone who had asked me.
I would have helped you if you had asked me.

Hypotheses 1


Hypotheses 2




Hello maxmamun001,

As I said, we use 'would have' to talk about an unreal past. If we say 'I would have enjoyed it' then we mean that we did not enjoy it for some reason (but would have if something had been different).

If we add a time reference such as 'once' then we can use 'would have' to refer to typical behaviour: I would have enjoyed it once, but not any more. However, the time reference is necessary ('once', 'at one time', 'when I was a child' etc).


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

hello i was listening bbc 6 minutes english and i found this sentence
we'll find out if you chose the right move star later on in the programme. which condition is this ? when we use will and past verb

Hello ganneu,

THis looks ike a conditional form because it has 'if' in the sentence, but not all sentences with 'if' are conditionals. Here, the 'if' means 'whether or not', and the sentence is not a conditional.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

being betrayed by friend....what does it mean? i just got betrayed or i m still getting betrayed...which one is correct

Hello maxmamun,

'being betrayed by a friend' doesn't have any specific reference to time in it. It could be it happened in the past or future, or could refer to this kind of betrayal in general.

Best wishes,
The LearnEnglish Team

this problem has nothing to do with me ...does it mean ...i m not involved with this problem

Hello maxmamun,

Yes, that's right – you've understood it.

Best wishes,
The LearnEnglish Team

my father has nothing to do with me...what does that mean?

Hello maxmamun,

It's difficult to say precisely what this means without context, but it communicates the same idea as above – my father is not involved in my life or this situation – this is where context is key.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

Dear Sir,
When I say, "I wish I could do that for you"

What does it mean:
I cannot do it for you but I wish I could.
When time comes in the future, I hope I would be able to do that for you.