Why do we use this and these?

We use this (singular) and these (plural) as pronouns:

- to talk about people or things near us:

This is a nice cup of tea.
Whose shoes are these?

- to introduce people:

This is Janet.
These are my friends, John and Michael.

We don’t say These are John and Michael.
We say This is John and this is Michael.

- to introduce ourselves to begin a conversation on the phone:

Hello, this is David, Can I speak to Sally?

Why do we use that and those?

We use that (singular) and those (plural):

- to talk about things that are not near us:

What’s that?
This is our house, and that’s Rebecca’s house over there.
Those are very expensive shoes.

- We also use that to refer back to something someone said or did:

  • - Shall we go to the cinema?
    - Yes, that’s a good idea.
  • - I’ve got a new job.
    - That’s great.
  • - I’m very tired.
    - Why is that?

this, these, that, those with nouns

We also use this, these, that and those with nouns to show proximity

We use this and these for people or things near us:

We have lived in this house for twenty years.
Have you read all of these books?

… and that and those for people or things that are not near us:

Who lives in that house?
Who are those people?



that's great!!

what exactly? 

 It's very easy

HY FRIENDS..........
Today's listen improved  helpful for me. i became familiar to these words and there use in daily life thanks BRITISH COUNCIL.

Sorry To Say But M Very Confused . I mean I Dont know where should i start from can anyone guide meah plz?

Are you wondering where to start in the grammar section? It's not designed to be read from start to finish, instead you can look at any section that you find interesting or think you can learn from.
Good luck!
The LearnEnglish Team

Its Okay ... But I meant That Not Being Native English Speaker How Can I Improve My Foundation Of English? Every Thing Is Mixed up in my mind

That's a difficult question. You need to think about what your strengths and weaknesses are. A teacher might be able to help you with that. Then you need to decide how to improve your weakest areas. Everyone is different in the way they learn languages. Some people prefer a formal class, others like to study with a friend, some like working from a book, others find the internet useful...
One of the most important things is to expose yourself to lots of English. Try reading and listening to some English every day, so it is always in your head.
Best wishes,
The LearnEnglish Team

me too i want from some to comment on my speach and writing......and not knowing the way of starting add to this im busy now and have no time to improve my language

 Hi Riham,
At the moment LearnEnglish doesn't have a formal facility for commenting on people's speech and writing. We're quite a small team and we just don't have time to help everyone. We try to answer questions in the comments where we can, but we don't promise to reply.
Of course, if you have no time to practice English, that's an even bigger problem! Perhaps you can find some time during your commute to listen to our podcasts?
Best wishes,
The LearnEnglish Team