We use a modal verb with have and the past participle:

Subject Modal Have Past Participle  
They will have arrived by now
You might have seen the film
Jack and Jill would have been late

 We use a modal verb with have to refer back:

  • … from a point of time in the past:

We were very worried. Someone might have taken the car.

  • … from the present

It is nearly eight o’clock. They will have arrived by now.

  • …or from the future:

We won’t eat until they arrive. They might not have had supper.

  • or to refer to past time:

You should have helped her when she asked.
They might have got lost. Nobody knows where they are.


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