Level: intermediate

When we know about the future, we normally use the present tense.

1. We use the present simple for something scheduled:

We have a lesson next Monday.
The train arrives at 6.30 in the morning.
The holidays start next week.
It's my birthday tomorrow.

2. We can use the present continuous for plans or arrangements:

I'm playing football tomorrow.
They are coming to see us tomorrow.
We're having a party at Christmas.

3. We use will:

  • when we express beliefs about the future:

It will be a nice day tomorrow.
I think Brazil will win the World Cup.
I'm sure you will enjoy the film.

  • to mean want to or be willing to:

I hope you will come to my party.
George says he will help us.

  • to make offers and promises :

I'll see you tomorrow.
We'll send you an email.

  • to talk about offers and promises:

Tim will be at the meeting.
Mary will help with the cooking.

4. We use be going to:

  • to talk about plans or intentions:

I'm going to drive to work today.
They are going to move to Manchester.

  • to make predictions based on evidence we can see:

Be careful! You are going to fall(= I can see that you might fall.)
Look at those black clouds. I think it's going to rain(= I can see that it will rain.)

5. We use will be with an -ing form for something happening before and after a specific time in the future:

I'll be working at eight o'clock. Can you come later?
They'll be waiting for you when you arrive.

6. We can use will be with an -ing form instead of the present continuous or be going to when we are talking about plans, arrangements and intentions:

They'll be coming to see us next week.
I'll be driving to work tomorrow.

7. We often use verbs like would like, plan, want, mean, hope, expect to talk about the future:

What are you going to do next year? I'd like to go to university.
We plan to go to France for our holidays.
George wants to buy a new car.

8. We use modals may, might and could when we are not sure about the future:

I might stay at home tonight or I might go to the cinema.
We could see Mary at the meeting. She sometimes goes.

9. We can use should if we think there's a good chance of something happening:

We should be home in time for tea.
The game should be over by eight o'clock.

Talking about the future 1

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Talking about the future 2

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The future in time clauses and if-clauses 

In time clauses with words like when, after, until we often use present tense forms to talk about the future:

I'll come home when I finish work.
You must wait here until your father comes.
They are coming after they have had dinner.

In clauses with if we often use present tense forms to talk about the future:

We won't be able to go out if it is raining.
If Barcelona lose tomorrow, they will be champions.

 

Be careful!
We do not normally use will in time clauses and if-clauses:

I'll come home when I finish work. (NOT will finish work)
We won’t be able to go out if it rains(NOT will rain)

but we can use will if it means want to or be willing to:

I will be very happy if you will come to my party.
We should finish the job early if George will help us.

Comments

It's an imperative structure. You might hear it in James Bond films:
"Bond, you are to find Goldfinger and destroy his bass. It's out of tune."

So.. You are to do something is an instruction.

In the past tense we was/were + to + infinitive, but it sounds like someone died and so the arrangement was never completed.

If something didn't happen for other reasons, it's probably better to use "supposed to.."

You're late! You were supposed to be here half an hour ago.
I was supposed to pay that bill last week.

should have (done) works here, too.

Btw: supposed to is not followed by have done - in this context.

It was supposed to rain today, according to the weather forecast. Not:
It was supposed to have rained..

However.. In the sense of "people believed it was true.."
He was thought to have been a Viking warrior, but we can't prove it.

thought/believed/assumed/supposed

I wouldn't use supposed to have been. It sounds ambiguous.

HI
Just confirm me what i understood

would - should use only in past tense(is there any exception for it - using that in future sentence when we are not sure about that matter)

Thanks

Hi bharathviki,

The modal verb 'would' can be used with past, present or future meanings, depending on the context. This page describes various ways of talking about the future, of which 'would' is one. For other uses of 'would' take a look at our pages on modal verbs and their uses.

Best wishes,

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Good morning,
Admittedly a long time ago, I was taught by English teachers with degrees, that the future tense in English was:
I shall, you will, he / she will, we shall, you will, they will
Maybe I did not look well enough but I cannot find any trace of “shall” in your website http://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/english-grammar/verbs/talking-...
Shall we forget about shall?
With kind regards,
Brelo

Hello Brelo,

Although 'shall' can be used to speak about the future or make predictions, it is most commonly used nowadays to make offers or suggestions. For this reason, we include it on our ability, permissions, requests and advice page.

Best wishes,
Kirk
The LearnEnglish Team

Hello. Does "be going to" here show a plan?
I'm going to have to study English.
I guess you will be going.

Hello Dwishiren,

In the first sentence it shows a plan.

In the second sentence it is a different use, not [going to + verb] but rather [will + verb]. 'Will', like other modal verbs, is followed by a base form or infinitive. Here, it is followed by a continuous infinitive. You can see this clearly if you use a different verb:

...you will leave soon [infinitive]

...you will be leaving soon [continuous infinitive]

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Barcelona win or wins?

Hello AbdAlluh Fareed,

Both are perfectly fine. We can see Barcelona as an institution or team (when we use 'wins' as it is a singular noun) or as a collection of individuals (when we use 'win' as it is a plural noun). Sports clubs and many organisations work in this way: 'the government', 'the police', 'Manchester United', 'The LearnEnglish Team' etc.

Best wishes,

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

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