Verb phrases in English have the following forms:
- a main verb:
|auxiliary be||-ing form|
- the auxiliary verb have and a main verb in the past participle form:
|auxiliary have||past participle|
- a modal verb (can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would) and a main verb:
|modal verb||main verb|
- the auxiliary verbs have and been and a main verb in the –ing form:
|auxiliary have been||-ing form|
A verb phrase with have, been and the -ing form expresses both perfect aspect and continuous aspect. A verb with have/has expresses present perfect continuous and a verb with had expresses past perfect continuous.
- a modal verb and the auxiliaries be, have and have been:
- the auxiliary verb be and a main verb in the past participle form:
|auxiliary be||past participle|
|English||is||spoken||all over the world.|
|The windows||have been||cleaned.|
|The work||will be||finished||soon.|
|They||might have been||invited||to the party.|
A verb phrase with be and the past participle expresses passive voice.
We can use the auxiliaries do and did with the infinitive for emphasis:
It was a wonderful party. I did enjoy it.
I do agree with you. I think you are absolutely right.
We can also use do for polite invitations:
Do come and see us some time.
There will be lots of people there. Do bring your friends.