Level: intermediate

Past tense

There are two tenses in English – past and present.

The past tense in English is used:

  • to talk about the past
  • to talk about hypotheses (when we imagine something)
  • for politeness.

There are four past tense forms in English:

Past simple: I worked
Past continuous: I was working
Past perfect: I had worked
Past perfect continuous: I had been working

We use these forms:

  • to talk about the past:

He worked at McDonald's. He had worked there since July.
He was working at McDonald's. He had been working there since July.

  • to refer to the present or future in hypotheses:

It might be dangerous. Suppose they got lost.

This use is very common in wishes:

I wish it wasn't so cold.

and in conditions with if:

He could get a new job if he really tried.
If Jack was playing, they would probably win.

For hypotheses, wishes and conditions in the past, we use the past perfect:

It was very dangerous. What if you had got lost?
I wish I hadn't spent so much money last month.
I would have helped him if he had asked.

and also to talk about the present in a few polite expressions:

Excuse me, I was wondering if this was the train for York.
I just hoped you would be able to help me.

Past tense 1

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Past tense 2

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Comments

Hello. Could you help me, please?
1- When I was in Sharm El-Sheikh, I sunbathed a lot.
If I used "would sunbathe" instead of "sunbathed", would that change the meaning?
Thank you.

Hello Ahmed Imam

It would essentially mean the same thing, since you use 'a lot' in the first version. Though 'would' would imply it was a habit, whereas the simple past is not as specific -- it could be just what happened, rather than being a habit, for example.

All the best

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

Can I say:
I wish I hadn't gone shopping with you. I spent too much money.
Or
I wish I hadn't gone shopping with you. I have spent too much money.
Are they both correct?

Hello Shaban Nafea

The first one is correct. The first sentence clearly speaks about a finished past event, and so the past simple is the tense you should use to refer to it, not the present perfect.

All the best

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

Hello.
What is the difference in meaning between the two following sentences :
1- When I opened the window, a cat jumped out.
2- When I had opened the window, a cat jumped out.
Some colleagues say that the past perfect is wrong here. What would you say?
Thank you.

Hello Ahmed Imam

Yes, 2 is strange or even incorrect because 'when' is speaking about a specific moment in time and the past simple is the best form to speak of such a moment in time. 

All the best

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

I post this question here because I cannot find a comment box in reported speech section.I want to know how to change the below speech .
Direct speech: "He had to go to school."

Hello ahlinthit

The simplest way to say it is something like 'They said that he had to go to school'. You should of course change 'they' to the person who is reporting the speech.

Thanks for telling us that the comment box didn't work for you. If you were on Reported speech 1 or 2, that's because we are currently revising those pages. Once they're finished, you will be able to comment there. In any case, on this reported speech page you can ask any other questions you have.

Thanks and best wishes

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

Hello Kirk,

The simplest way to say it is something like 'They said that he had to go school'. You should of course change 'they' to the person who is reporting the speech.

I think it should be:

The simplest way to say it is something like 'They said that he had to go school'. You should of course change 'they' to the person who said the direct speech.

Hello wesleybaan

The word 'say' doesn't collocate with the word 'speech' in that way, though I'm sure people would understand it. We usually use 'give' or 'deliver' or 'report' with the noun 'speech'.

As for the verb tense, you're right, you could use the past simple there since the action was in the past. A present tense is also possible if you're thinking more about the sentence than the actual event.

In either case, I noticed that I had left out the word 'to' before 'school' in my first comment. Sorry if that caused any confusion. I've fixed it so that it's now there and wanted to point that out.

All the best

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

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