Level: intermediate

Reporting and summarising

When we want to report what people say, we don't usually try to report their exact words. We usually give a summary, for example:

Direct speech (exact words):

Mary: Oh dear. We've been walking for hours! I'm exhausted. I don't think I can go any further. I really need to stop for a rest.
Peter: Don't worry. I'm not surprised you're tired. I'm tired too. I'll tell you what, let's see if we can find a place to sit down, and then we can stop and have our picnic.

Reported speech (summary):

When Mary complained that she was tired out after walking so far, Peter said they could stop for a picnic.

Reporting verbs

When we want to report what people say, we use reporting verbs. Different reporting verbs have different patterns, for example:

Mary complained (that) she was tired.
(verb + that clause)

She asked if they could stop for a rest.
(verb + if clause)

Peter told her not to worry.
(verb + to-infinitive)

He suggested stopping and having a picnic.
(verb + -ing form) 

See reporting verbs with that, wh- and if clauses, verbs followed by the infinitive, verbs followed by the -ing form.

Reporting and summarising 1


Reporting and summarising 2


Tenses in reported speech

When reporting what people say or think in English, we need to remember that the rules for tense forms in reported speech are exactly the same as in the rest of the language.

This is a letter that Andrew wrote ten years ago:

am 22 years old and I am at university studying engineering. I take my final exams next month and I will finish university in July.

want to take a year off and travel round the world. I will need to make some money while I am travelling, so I would like to learn to teach English as a second language so that I can make some money while I am abroad. A friend of mine has recommended your course very highly. She also gave me some details, but I would like to ask a few more questions.

What courses do you have in the summer and when do they start? How much do the courses cost? Is there an examination at the end?

look forward to hearing from you.


Andrew Brown

If we wanted to report what Andrew said in his letter, we might say something like this: 

Andrew said that when he was 22, he was an engineering student in his last month at university. He wanted to travel abroad after he had finished his course at the university, but he would need to earn some money while he was abroad so he wanted to learn to teach English as a foreign language. A friend had recommended a course but Andrew needed more information, so he wrote to the school and asked them when their courses started and how much they were. He also wanted to know if there was an examination at the end of the course.

We would naturally use past tense forms to talk about things which happened ten years ago. So, tenses in reports and summaries in English are the same as in the rest of the language.

Sometimes we can choose between a past tense form and a present tense form. If we're talking about the past but we mention something that's still true, we can use the present tense:

John said he'd stayed at the Shangri-la because it's the best hotel in town.
Mary said she enjoyed the film because Robert de Niro is her favourite actor.
Helen said she loves visiting New York.

or the past tense:

John said he'd stayed at the Shangri-la because it was the best hotel in town.
Mary said she enjoyed the film because Robert de Niro was her favourite actor.
Helen said she loved visiting New York.

If we're talking about something that everybody knows is true, we normally use the present tense:

Michael said he'd always wanted to climb Everest because it's the highest mountain in the world.
Mary said she loved visiting New York because it's such an exciting city.


"The boss is dead!," said the doctor.
"The boss is dead!", said the doctor.
Between the above two sentences which sentence is punctuated correctly.Thanks.

Hello ahlinthit

There are different styles of punctuating direct speech -- in other words, you might find other sources that will disagree with me -- but what I would use here is something different: "The boss is dead!" said the doctor.

Hope this helps.

Best wishes


The LearnEnglish Team

I am confused .Is there any specific rule for when we should use the comma or when we can leave it as you have answered in the above sentence.Can you please explain more about that.

Hello ahlinthit

The exclamation point is a bit different from most direct speech, which usually ends with a comma, even when the sentence would normally end with a full stop:  

'Have a glass of water,' he said.

This is an example of most direct speech: use a comma to end the direct speech and put the comma inside the inverted quotes. If you do an internet search for 'how to punctuate direct speech', you will see lots of explanations of this.

Hope this helps.

All the best


The LearnEnglish Team

I have been studying English for a while now, and even though I know the rule to this question I'm about to ask, I want to know why it's like that. Why do we always use plural verbs after the auxiliary "to do" e.g., "he does know I care about him" and "she did go to the mall yesterday"

Hello Timmosky,

The form that comes after the auxiliary verb 'do' (or 'does' or 'did') is not the plural present simple verb, but rather the bare infinitive (also known as 'base form' or 'first form') of the verb. Does that make sense?

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

hello sir,
I have a doubt in understanding sentences which includes " to the effect". for example:

The Registrar on the basis of documents and information shall register all the documents and information and issue a certificate of incorporation in the prescribed form to the effect that the proposed company is incorporated under this Act.

what is to the effect mean.

Hello sky-high,

This is very formal language. The phrase 'to the effect that' means 'with the meaning that'. In this context it can be understood to mean 'with the result that'.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

thank you.

Peter said "I don't think Rooney is still in good shape." what's the difference between these two reported formats
1. "Peter said he doesn't think Rooney is still in good shape."
2. "Peter says he doesn't think Rooney is still in good shape.". Can said and says be used interchangeably when the reported event is still true?