Third conditionals and mixed conditionals

Conditionals are sentences with two clauses – an ‘if clause and a main clause – that are closely related. Conditional sentences are often divided into different types.

Third conditional

Third conditional sentences describe the past. They describe something that didn’t happen.

  • If I’d studied harder at school I would have gone to university.

He didn’t study very hard and he didn’t go to university.

  • We wouldn’t have got lost if you hadn’t given me the wrong directions.

She wasn't given the correct directions and she didn't find her way.

  • She might have finished the exam if she’d had more time.

She didn't finish the exam and she didn't have more time.

In third conditional sentences, the structure is usually if + past perfect and would + perfect infinitive (e.g. have done). It’s not important which clause comes first.

Notice that other modal verbs can be used instead of ‘would’ (e.g. ‘could’, ‘might’ ‘may’)

Mixed conditionals

In mixed conditional sentences the time in the ‘if’ clause is not the same as the time in the main clause. There can be various combinations.

  • If he’d gone to university he might have a better job.

He didn’t go to university (past)
He doesn’t have a very good job. (present)
This sentence shows the present consequences of a past action.

  • If I’d won the competition I’d be going to Florida next week.

She didn’t win the competition (past)
She isn’t going to Florida (future)
This sentence shows the future consequences of a past action.





Can someone explain me when we use "used to" and " would (always/never) what is the purpose of the option of "would"? why we have 2 different ways to explain past actions or habits? Especially, can someone explain me the structure when we use 'would' e.g. When I was a kid I would always go to the chirch on Sunday. I have been asked why we use "would" and Im not sure how to answer gramatically.

Many thanks,

Hello MissUrb,

We use both 'used to' and 'would' to talk about things that were typical or habitual for someone or something in the past. We can think of these in two categories: actions and states.

Actions are things we do: travel, eat, play and so on.

States are things we are or things that represent how we are: be, feel, think, live and so on.


We can use both 'used to' and 'would' to describe habitual actions in the past:

I used to play football every Sunday. [correct]

I would play football every Sunday.  [correct]


However, we can only use 'used to' to describe past states and not 'would':

I used to live in London. [correct]

I would live in London. [not correct]


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

Thank you Peter!

I thought thats how I explained it too, though I was then asked whats the purpose of 'would' in the sentence structure in this case? As I think they wanted to know why cant they just use 'used to' all the time?

Hello! Can i know the difference in between the statements ''If I'd known you were coming" and ''If I'd known that you were coming" ?

Hello IsuriG,

There is no difference in meaning between the two sentences. The conjunction 'that' can be left out in many cases, especially in more informal situations.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

Hi, I'm confused about the third type of mixed conditional.
"If he didn't have to work tomorrow he wouldn't be so miserable today."
The first situation, " if he didn't have to work tomorrow", talks about a future situation, but the word "did" is used with reference to the word "tomorrow".
As an english learner, i stick to the clear-cut rules that "will" must be used when talking about future events, hence: "If he will not have to work tomorrow he wouldn't be so miserable today."
Is this a case of exception to the rule? I'm confused.

Hello Oloap,

'Will' is one way to talk about the future but English has many other forms which can also be used for this. Strictly, 'will' is not a tense in any case but a modal verb like 'must', 'might', 'can' and so on - all of which can be used to refer to the future as well as the present. You can see a summary of ways to talk about the future on this page, but there are also other forms used to talk about hypothetical or imaginary future events and these include past forms such as that in your example.

After 'if' we generally do not use 'will'. Rather, we use the first form of the verb (present) if the event is likely or the second form (past) if it is unlikely or impossible. In your example the person has to work and we are imagining a situation in which this is not true; hence we say 'If he didn't have to...'


I hope that clarifies it for you.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

Hello team!
Would you please explain if the following sentence describing past event, is correct: " If I hadn’t have to stay I’d have left". or the correct is "If I didn't have to stay I’d leave". The latter phrase is quote from "Tо Kill а Mосkingbird" where a girl talks about current moment.

Hello Alan (or Albert?),

No, I'm afraid that first sentence is not correct because 'hadn't have' is not a correct past perfect form. If you changed it to 'If I hadn't had to stay, I'd have left', it would be a grammatically correct third conditional. I don't remember the exact content of this sentence, but the third conditional would be used to speak about an unreal past time, whereas the second conditional (which is what is used in the second sentence) is used to speak about an unreal present or future time.

Does that make sense?

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

Many thanks, Kirk!
Best regards, Alan