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Past perfect

Do you know how to use phrases like They'd finished the project by March or Had you finished work when I called?

Look at these examples to see how the past perfect is used.

He couldn't make a sandwich because he'd forgotten to buy bread.
The hotel was full, so I was glad that we'd booked in advance.
My new job wasn't exactly what I’d expected.

Try this exercise to test your grammar.

Grammar test 1

Grammar B1-B2: Past perfect: 1

Read the explanation to learn more.

Grammar explanation

Time up to a point in the past

We use the past perfect simple (had + past participle) to talk about time up to a certain point in the past.

She'd published her first poem by the time she was eight. 
We'd finished all the water before we were halfway up the mountain.
Had the parcel arrived when you called yesterday?

Past perfect for the earlier of two past actions

We can use the past perfect to show the order of two past events. The past perfect shows the earlier action and the past simple shows the later action.

When the police arrived, the thief had escaped.

It doesn't matter in which order we say the two events. The following sentence has the same meaning.

The thief had escaped when the police arrived.

Note that if there's only a single event, we don't use the past perfect, even if it happened a long time ago.

The Romans spoke Latin. (NOT The Romans had spoken Latin.)

Past perfect with before

We can also use the past perfect followed by before to show that an action was not done or was incomplete when the past simple action happened.

They left before I'd spoken to them.
Sadly, the author died before he'd finished the series.


We often use the adverbs already (= 'before the specified time'), still (= as previously), just (= 'a very short time before the specified time'), ever (= 'at any time before the specified time') or never (= 'at no time before the specified time') with the past perfect. 

I called his office but he'd already left.
It still hadn't rained at the beginning of May.
I went to visit her when she'd just moved to Berlin.
It was the most beautiful photo I'd ever seen.
Had you ever visited London when you moved there?
I'd never met anyone from California before I met Jim.

Do this exercise to test your grammar again.

Grammar test 2

Grammar B1-B2: Past perfect: 2


Language level

Intermediate: B1


In our book(CUTTING EDGE) an example has been written as
We had been in Cairo for two months / since august.
I think this sentence is incorrect .

Hello Henok17

That sentence can be correct in certain situations. I'd recommend you ask your teacher about it; I expect they can help you understand how that sentence can be correct.

All the best


The LearnEnglish Team

It's really great.

Dear Teacher,


Is the following sentence grammatically correct:

"The novelist must have realized that history would ultimately reveal that the queen had actively participated in the rebellion as an ally, not foe."

Can Grammatical structures "Must have realized" + "would" + "Past perfect tense" be used in one sentence in the sequence given above?



Hello Raj,

Yes, the sentence is perfectly grammatical.



The LearnEnglish Team

Dear sir,
Are these sentences correct?
You: "Yes. They were under the cupboard."
Indirect: I answered that they had under the cupboard.

Hello Sevi Shinta,

The second sentence is not correct. You need to use a form of the verb be, not only had. In this context, we would not change the tense of the verb, so the correct sentence would be:

I answered that they were under the cupboard.



The LearnEnglish Team

Dear Sir,
The following sentence has got present perfect and past perfect. Can this (past and present perfects coming together) happen in the same sentence?
"He has done it for the first time in almost five years, according to the University documents, following speculation that he had been searching for evidences."
Thank you,

Hello kingson

Yes, it is possible -- the verb forms in the sentence you cite have no grammatical errors. 'evidences' is not correct, however: it is an uncount noun.

All the best


The LearnEnglish Team

Dear Teacher,


Is the use of the present perfect tense correct in the following sentences:
1. Tom who had already died in 1940 is presented as the king of Zupata during the famine of the 1920s. This story is anachronistic.

2. Some of them refer to the event as an early ‘war’ for the tribe's independence from the foreign rule since the right to collect tax had been given to the foreign Company after the Battle of Jejury in 1846.