Do you know how to use third and mixed conditionals?

Third conditionals and mixed conditionals

Conditionals are sentences with two clauses – an if clause and a main clause – that are closely related. Conditional sentences are often divided into different types.

Third conditional

Third conditional sentences describe the past. They describe something that didn't happen.

• If I'd studied harder at school, I would have gone to university.

He didn't study very hard and he didn't go to university.

• We wouldn't have got lost if you hadn't given me the wrong directions.

She wasn't given the correct directions and she didn't find her way.

• She might have finished the exam if she'd had more time.

She didn't finish the exam and she didn't have more time.

In third conditional sentences, the structure is usually if + past perfect and would + perfect infinitive (e.g. have done). It's not important which clause comes first.

Notice that other modal verbs can be used instead of would (e.g. could, might, may)

Mixed conditionals

In mixed conditional sentences the time in the if clause is not the same as the time in the main clause. There can be various combinations.

• If he'd gone to university, he might have a better job.

He didn't go to university (past)
He doesn't have a very good job. (present)
This sentence shows the present consequences of a past action.

• If I'd won the competition, I'd be going to Florida next week.

She didn't win the competition (past)
She isn't going to Florida (future)
This sentence shows the future consequences of a past action.

Exercise

### Language level

Upper intermediate: B2

In this country, the rain falls/pours mostly near the coast.
In the last sentence, can we use either word? If so, is there a difference?
Some teachers say that "pour" must be "pour down", what is correct?
In this country, the rain (falls - pours) mostly near the coast.
Thank you.

Hello Ahmed Imam,

'Falls' is the normal word here. We use 'pours' to describe rainfall which is heavier than what is normal. Since your sentence is talking about what is normal or typical, 'pours' would not really fit.

You can use both 'pours' and 'pours down' with, I think, no change in meaning.

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Dear teachers,
Happy New Year 2019. Wish U all a blessful new year.

"If the transportation is lower, the price of the merchandise will obviously become less expensive and more people could afford it"

My questions are :
1. I want to clarify this: did this sentence use "..could afford.." (past tense) instead of "..can afford.." to suggest less certainty?

2. The sentence uses both "..will obviously..." ( in the middle of the sentence) and also "..could afford.." (the last part of the sentence). I am not sure if using two different tenses like this in a sentence is correct? or should I better change "..will obviously.." (present tense) to "..would obviously..." (past) to synchronize it with the "..could afford.." (past)?
A friend of mine who is a native speaker said to me that I don't have to. But why?

Hello jiyi

Thank you -- we also wish you a happy 2019! Although I wouldn't say this sentence is incorrect, I think it would be clearer if it were changed to one of the following:

1. If the cost of transportation were lower, the merchandise would obviously become less expensive and more people could afford it.
2. If the cost of transportation is lower, the merchandise will obviously become less expensive and more people will be able to afford it.

I hope this helps you.

All the best

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

Sorry sir just a little edit

That sentence about mixed condition if it was wrong , could you kindly correct it ,
" if i told her about my love we would be getting married this year

Hello ramy brava,

That does not seem a logical sentence to me.

The phrase 'we would be getting married this year' suggests that a plan would be already in place; it means something like 'our wedding would already be planned'. However, the phrase 'if I told her' refers to a hypothetical future. This means that the time order is incorrect: there could not be a wedding plan already in place before you tell her about your love.

There are various ways to change the sentnece, but it depends what you want to say. For example:

If I had told her about my love, we would be getting married this year.

If I told her about my love, we would get married this year.

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Thanks sir , then the sentence if i had told , would be getting matried ,, is correct

Kindly i want more sentences about mixed conditional to be more clearly sir please ,