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Essays: Structure - Interview with Lecturer

Watch the video and do the tasks to learn more about writing Essays.

Task 1

Watch the interview with the business lecturer above. Decide if the statements below are true or false or not stated according to the lecturer.


Task 2

A student from the year above you gives you the following pieces of advice. Decide if you think they are good or bad.




Dear Sir
Please let me know this: the conclusion of an essay is a summary of the introductory paragraph or is it a summary of the whole paragraphs in the essay including the introductory.

Thank you.

Hello Andrew international,

There is no fixed rule about this and there are many different types of essay with different structures, but in general I would say that the conclusion should summarise the main argument of the text and not introduce new points. Thus the conclusion does not summarise a part of the essay but rather summarises the main thesis as developed throughout the text.


Best wishes,


The LearnEnglish Team

Thank you Peter, and to the rest of Learn English team! This site is really helpful. (:
Keep up the good job! I hope you never lose passion for helping students who eagerly wants to learn and improve their English skills.
Again, many thanks!

Hi! I don't know if this is a relevant question, but I'm really curious about this.

There are differences with UK and US English spelling. For instance, the s and z, or s and c in certain words. I wonder if these affects the scoring of the writing part of the exam? Sometimes, when I practice Academic writing, I get confused if I should adjust to UK spelling instead.
Many thanks!

Hi gracemaryanne,

The IELTS guidelines state the following:

A range of native-speaker accents (North American, Australian, New Zealand and British) is used in the Listening test, and all standard varieties of English are accepted in responses in all parts of the test.

You can read more about IELTS, and find many useful preparation materials (including practice tests and sample answers) on the British Council's site for IELTS candidates: TakeIELTS.

You can find preparation courses at British Council Teaching Centres in your area, and also check where and when to take the test.


Best wishes and good luck!


The LearnEnglish Team

Dear Team,

Hello, I'm Komang from Bali-Indonesia. How are you today?
I am very happy and thankful for the recordings British Council provided.
This oppurtunity, I'd like to ask something please? So, how do you explain these words' differences: see, seem, sees, seemed (or maybe there're other similiar words) ? what are their correct grammatically order? etc
I am looking forward to hearing from you soon.
Thank you very much.



Hello Komang,

There are two different verbs here: 'see' and 'seem'. 'sees' and 'seems' are third person singular present simple forms; 'saw' and 'seemed' are past simple forms. If you're not sure about a word, you can use the dictionary – see the search box under Cambridge Dictionaries Online on the right side of this page.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

Can we use the adverbs "presently", "shortly" to modify the verbs of present perfect tense?


I'm afraid that very general questions such as this one are very difficult to answer completely accurately, but I'd say that in general, no, these two adverbs don't work well with the present perfect. If you have a question about a specific sentence, by all means please ask. Also, why don't you look them up in the dictionary – see the search box on the right side of this page – to see what tenses are used in the example sentences.

Best wishes,
The LearnEnglish Team

I have listened many people saying ' I would like to thank Mr. XYZ ' . Is 'would' being used here to make this sentence Unreal ?