You are here

Conditionals 2

Do you know how to use third and mixed conditionals?

Look at these examples to see how third and mixed conditionals are used.

We would have walked to the top of the mountain if the weather hadn't been so bad.
If we'd moved to Scotland when I was a child, I would have a Scottish accent now.
If she was really my friend, she wouldn't have lied to me.

Try this exercise to test your grammar.

Grammar test 1

Conditionals 2: Grammar test 1

Read the explanation to learn more.

Grammar explanation

Do you know how to use third and mixed conditionals?

Third conditionals and mixed conditionals

Conditionals describe the result of a certain condition. The if clause tells you the condition (If I hadn't been ill) and the main clause tells you the result (I would have gone to the party). The order of the clauses does not change the meaning.

If I hadn't been ill, I would have gone to the party.
I would have gone to the party if I hadn't been ill.

Conditional sentences are often divided into different types.

Third conditional

The third conditional is used to imagine a different past. We imagine a change in a past situation and the different result of that change.

If I had understood the instructions properly, I would have passed the exam.
We wouldn't have got lost if my phone hadn't run out of battery.

In third conditional sentences, the structure is usually: If + past perfect >> would have + past participle.

Mixed conditionals

We can use mixed conditionals when we imagine a past change with a result in the present or a present change with a result in the past.

1. Past/Present 

Here's a sentence imagining how a change in a past situation would have a result in the present.

If I hadn't got the job in Tokyo, I wouldn't be with my current partner.

So the structure is: If + past perfect >> would + infinitive.

2. Present/Past

Here's a sentence imagining how a different situation in the present would mean that the past was different as well.

It's really important. If it wasn't, I wouldn't have called you on your holiday.

And the structure is: If + past simple >> would have + past participle.

Do this exercise to test your grammar again.

Grammar test 2

Conditionals 2: Grammar test 2

Language level

Intermediate: B1
Upper intermediate: B2


Hello Peter,
Sorry for any convenience I caused and thank you for your explanation. I really appreciate it.
I was new here so I really didn't know where to post my query although I tried to look for an appropriate page and I wrongly thought it was OK to post my question here. Sorry about that. I'll be more careful next time.
As for the exercise I did, it's from an exercise book, so it's impossible for me to ask the authors for help. (The interaction between exercise book authors and learners is not popular in my country.) I've studied English by myself, so when I found your site I felt very lucky to have a chance to consult professionals. Thanks for that.
By the way, in 'the field medicine', I omitted "of" when typing the sentence. Sorry about it. I'll pay more attention to my typing next time.
Again, I'd like to thank you for understanding. Thanks for your help and your patience. Hope to get more help from you in the future.
Best wishes,

Hi, I'm new here and look forward to learn from you guys.

hi peter please let me now what is the different A- I will come and I shall come
also they shall come and they will come

Hi kush1,

shall is mostly used to offer to do something or to ask for instructions - this is explained in the section called Offers and invitations on our ability, permissions, requests and advice page.

It can also used as an alternative to will for the subjects I and we in some instances, and is also used in other ways, but these uses are not nearly as common. 'I shall come' does indeed mean the same as 'I will come', but 'they shall come' is not really used in modern spoken English.

I hope this helps you.

Best wishes,
The LearnEnglish Team

Hi all,
I have a question.
Above, in this page, i read a sentence like: "She didn't finish the exam and she didn't have more time".
Is possible to re-write this sentece "She didn't finish the exam and she hadn't more time"???

thank you and sorry for my bad english.

Hi Tommaso,

No, we wouldn't use that construction.  We can form negatives in the past simple with 'hadn't got' or with 'didn't have', but not just *'hadn't'*.

Best wishes,



The LearnEnglish Team

Hi all,

I am new joiner Please help me for improving my self

Hi, I have just joined. Hope to learn a lot.

I'm new
kindly help me to improve the sentences..

Hello Rocki,

Welcome to LearnEnglish.  We'll be happy to help you, of course.  Any time you have a question about the material on here, or about English in general, then we'll be happy to try to answer it for you.

Best wishes,



The LearnEnglish Team