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'in spite of', 'despite', 'although', 'even though' and 'though'

Do you know how to connect two contrasting ideas using although, even though, in spite of and despite?

Look at these examples to see how although, even though, in spite of and despite are used.

Although we don't agree, I think she's a brilliant speaker.
Even though we don't agree, I think she's a brilliant speaker.
In spite of the law, people continue to use mobile phones while driving.
Despite the law, people continue to use mobile phones while driving.

Try this exercise to test your grammar.

Grammar test 1

'in spite of', 'despite', 'although', 'even though' and 'though': Grammar test 1

Read the explanation to learn more.

Grammar explanation

Although, even though, in spite of and despite are all used to link two contrasting ideas or show that one fact makes the other fact surprising. They can all be used at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence. 

Despite the rain, we enjoyed the festival.
We enjoyed the festival, despite the rain.

The main difference between although, even though, in spite of and despite is that they are used with different structures. 

in spite of / despite

After in spite of and despite, we use a noun, gerund (-ing form of a verb) or a pronoun.

They never made much money, in spite of their success.
In spite of the pain in his leg, he completed the marathon.
Despite having a headache, I had a great birthday.
The train was cancelled. In spite of that, we arrived on time.

Note that it is common to use in spite of and despite with the expression the fact that, followed by a subject and verb.

In spite of the fact that he worked very hard, he didn't pass the exam.
Despite the fact that he worked very hard, he didn't pass the exam.

although / even though

After although and even though, we use a subject and a verb. Even though is slightly stronger and more emphatic than although.

I enjoyed the course, although I would have liked more grammar practice.
Although we saw each other every day, we didn't really know each other.
Even though she spoke very quietly, he understood every word.
She didn't get the job, even though she had all the necessary qualifications.

though

Though can be used in the same way as although

Though I wasn't keen on the film, I thought the music was beautiful.

Though can also go at the end of the second phrase. This way of expressing contrasting ideas is most common in spoken English.

We waited ages for our food. The waiter was really nice, though.

Do this exercise to test your grammar again.

Grammar test 2

'in spite of', 'despite', 'although', 'even though' and 'though': Grammar test 2

Language level

Intermediate: B1

Comments

Dear sir,
Can you please tell the error in the following sentences and is it correct to use 'although' this way?

1) Hot and humid although (a)/ the weather was,(b)/we kept fighting to win the (c)/ match till the end of the match. (d)/ no error (e)

2) immensely talented although (a)/ he is, he never (b)/helped India to win a (c)/ final match on his own.(d)/ no error (e)

Hello Pratapsingh

In an older style or perhaps in verse, it's correct to use 'although' in this way, but in most speaking or writing these days both of these sentence would sound quite strange (though intelligible). A more standard phrasing would be 'Although the weather was hot and humid, ...'

Other than that, I don't see any other grammatical errors.

All the best

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

Thank u dear sir

Hello Mr Kirk ,

I can't understand the difference between in spite of and despite ?

Hello Momocompanyman,

There is no difference between despite and in spite of in meaning or grammatical function, and you can use the two interchangeably.

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team

Thank you so much for benefit.

Hello,
Sorry to leave a question here about "unless".
I didn't find a section in grammar part of the site under which "unless" is explained.

On what condition, should subjunctive be used after "unless"?

Hello Arash Yekta

As far as I know, it's unusual to use a subjunctive form after 'unless' in spoken or written English. It was perhaps more common in the past, but off the top of my head, the only time I can think of to use it would be in a kind of second conditional. For example, 'If we had time, we'd go skiing, unless there was no snow', though really I would say 'but only if there was snow' instead of 'unless there was no snow' because it sounds a little odd to me.

You can see some examples of 'unless' with a subjunctive verb on the Wikipedia English subjunctive page, but please note these sound very odd to modern ears. In general, I'd recommend this Cambridge dictionary page for general reference.

Hope this helps.

All the best

Kirk

The LearnEnglish Team

Hello Kirk
Could you please take a look at this sentence from "after twenty years" by O.Henry;
"Oh,I'll wait for at least half an hour.If Jimmy's alive,he'll be here by then.(moderated for the sake of simplicity)
And then this multiple choice test:
Bob said that Jimmy would surely turn up unless he......
1.had forgotten their plan
2.had changed
3.were no longer alive
4.were in a bad mood
Are 3 and 4 considered odd in modern English?

Hello Arash Yekta,

I'm not sure what you mean, exactly. The verb forms (with 'were') are fine, as is the use of the past simple in reported speech. I don't see anything unnatural about the language there.

 

Peter

The LearnEnglish Team 

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