Do you know how to use third and mixed conditionals?

Third conditionals and mixed conditionals

Conditionals are sentences with two clauses – an if clause and a main clause – that are closely related. Conditional sentences are often divided into different types.

Third conditional

Third conditional sentences describe the past. They describe something that didn't happen.

  • If I'd studied harder at school, I would have gone to university.

He didn't study very hard and he didn't go to university.

  • We wouldn't have got lost if you hadn't given me the wrong directions.

She wasn't given the correct directions and she didn't find her way.

  • She might have finished the exam if she'd had more time.

She didn't finish the exam and she didn't have more time.

In third conditional sentences, the structure is usually if + past perfect and would + perfect infinitive (e.g. have done). It's not important which clause comes first.

Notice that other modal verbs can be used instead of would (e.g. could, might, may)

Mixed conditionals

In mixed conditional sentences the time in the if clause is not the same as the time in the main clause. There can be various combinations.

  • If he'd gone to university, he might have a better job.

He didn't go to university (past)
He doesn't have a very good job. (present)
This sentence shows the present consequences of a past action.

  • If I'd won the competition, I'd be going to Florida next week.

She didn't win the competition (past)
She isn't going to Florida (future)
This sentence shows the future consequences of a past action.



Language level

Upper intermediate: B2


Hi teachers, i would like to ask you two questions. 1) you would not have won the gold medal unless you (had worked out) work out hard. May i use the presente tense. 2) if i had waited for further ten minutes i would have met him.

In this second one i was wondering if it was a most informal way to use in the speaking skill so that i may be fluent and fast.

Thanks in advance.

Hello rosario70

In 1, the only tnese that is grammatically correct for that verb is a past perfect form. I'd recommend: 'You wouldn't have won the gold medal if you hadn't worked out hard.'

In 2, 'would have met' is the only correct form. In informal speaking,we usually use contractions and short forms to speak more quickly: 'I would've met him' (pronounced /aɪ wʊdəv mɛtɪm/) or even 'I'd've met him' (pronounced /aɪdəv mɛtɪm/).

All the best


The LearnEnglish Team

Hello. Today, We had a discussion group about conditionals and we had different opinions about the following sentence:
- If you are a well-organised person, you manage, will manage your time.
Some teachers say that "manage" is the only correct answer while others and I didn't agree with them as we thought that "will manage" is equally correct especially there was no more context.
Please, which one is correct?
Thank you.

Hello Ahmed Imam,
Both 'manage' and 'will manage' are grammatically correct, but there is a difference in use.

If you say 'manage' then you are making a general comment - saying something that is always true. The sentence effectively means this is what all well-organised people do.

We use 'will manage' in two ways. The most common is to talk about a particular situation in the future: if you are a well-organised person then you will manage your time [this weekend/at college/so you can spend time with us etc]

Another use is 'will' as a sign of expectation. In this case, the speaker would be saying if you are a well-organised person then you will probably manage your time well.


I hope that helps to clarify it for you.


The LearnEnglish Team

Hello, everyone. In the following sentence, we cannot use "when" instead of "if", right? - If you answer this question right, you have a good brain.
I have been searching to get more examples to understand it but in vain.
Could you please give some more examples of when I can use "if" not "when"?
Thank you

Hello Ahmed Imam,
We use 'if' when something is not certain and 'when' when there is no doubt. For exampele:
> If you see Susan, say hello to her from me.
> When you see Susan, say hello to her from me.
In the first sentence, the speaker does not know if the person will see Susan or not.
In the second sentence, the speaker knows for sure that the person will see Susan.
In your example, 'when' does not make sense as the question acts as a test. If we were 100% sure that the person will answer the question correctly, then we could already say they have a good brain and not wait for their answer.
The LearnEnglish Team

Hi sir.
Please, tell me the difference between these two sentences.
Even if England were to win ...
Even if England won....

Those are second conditional examples. When we have to use simple-past verb n were to infinitive

Thank you,

Hi Risa warysha,
Both forms describe can describe unlikely events, with [if... were to] being a little more formal. However, [if + were to] cannot be used to describe impossible or imaginary situations:
> If he offered you money, would you accept = correct (unlikely future)
> If he were to offer you money, would you accept = correct (unlikely future)
> If I had three heads, I would spent a lot on hats = correct (imaginary situation)
> If I were to have three heads, I would spent a lot on hats = not correct (imaginary situation)
The LearnEnglish Team

hi teacher,
Can you please help me, I can't decide which is correct.
(a) She would not talk to you if she was/ were mad at you.
(b) You know if David wasn’t/weren't so clumsy, he would not have so many accidents.
Many thanks for your kind response.

Hi JessicaAw,
Both 'was' and 'were' are possible in each sentence. 'Were' used to be expected in such sentences, but languages change over time and in modern English both forms are commonly used.
The LearnEnglish Team