قم بتأدية المهمة التمهيدية أولا ثم اقرأ النص. بعد ذلك اذهب لكل مهمة وقم بتأدية النشاط
When you first read the text, don't worry about the numbers in brackets. You will fill in the gaps in Exercise 1.
A change for the better?
In the world of business, change is inevitable. Nobody would seriously argue with that, especially at a time when IT developments are sweeping through all areas of work and changing how things are done and who does them. But when change does come, not everybody agrees on what it means. How you view change depends on  in the organisation, and managers and employees usually have very different perspectives.
If you’re , your focus is on results, and you’ll see the change as the best way to realise them. They are more aware of the business’ overall goals, the financial state of the company and its position with regard to competitors and market share.
When  consider introducing change, they ask questions such as, ‘How quickly can it be implemented?’, ‘How will it benefit the company?’, ‘What investment is required?’, ‘How cost effective is the change?’ and ‘How will it affect our customers?’ Since they are usually the advocates of change, managers tend to be more enthusiastic about it.
If you’re , however, your focus is more on the immediate task of getting the job done. They seldom have time to consider how their work fits into the overall scheme of things; they don’t share the broader perspective of the company directors. Because they are often skilled and experienced in their work, or because they are placed on the frontline dealing with customers on a daily basis, they look at change from a personal perspective.
The questions  ask are, ‘How will this effect the quality of my work?’, ‘How much time will it take for me to adapt?’, ‘What’s wrong with the way we’ve always done things?’ and, ultimately, ‘What’s in it for me?’ Since employees are the ones who have to put the change into action, they are usually less enthusiastic about it.
With such different  about change within the organisation, it’s not surprising that innovation often fails. Planned changes need to be carefully thought out and managed. If not, morale will suffer as people feel that they are being forced to change against their will. There will surely be resistance, and some highly valued members of staff may even decide it’s time to leave.
All of this can eventually have a negative effect on productivity and efficiency. Management will have to admit defeat and drop the change, or risk losing  to the competition…and then another great idea bites the dust.