Unit 4: Starting and finishing emails

Unit 4: Starting and finishing emails

How should you begin and finish an email message to someone you don't know? Find out here!

Starting and finishing emails

Here are some important points to consider when starting and finishing an email.

Formal or informal?

We write a formal email when we want to be polite, or when we do not know the reader very well. A lot of work emails are formal. We write informal emails when we want to be friendly, or when we know the reader well. A lot of social emails are informal. Here are some examples of formal and informal messages:

Formal Informal
An email to a customer 
A job application
An email to your manager
A complaint to a shop
An email from one company to another company

A birthday greeting to a colleague
An email to a colleague who is also a good friend
A social invitation to a friend at your workplace
An email with a link to a funny YouTube clip
A message to a friend on a social networking site

Before you start writing an email, decide if you want to write a formal email or an informal one.

Layout and punctuation

Starting an email: We normally write a comma after the opening phrase. We start a new line after the name of the person we’re writing to.

Finishing an email: We normally write a comma after the closing phrase. We start a new line to write our name at the end.

Formal Informal

Dear Mr Piper,
I am writing to thank you for all your help.
I look forward to seeing you next week.
With best wishes,
John Smith

Hi Tim,
Many thanks for your help.
See you next week.

Phrases for starting and finishing

Here are some phrases which we use for starting and finishing emails. We use these in formal and informal emails:

Starting phrases Dear Tim,
Good morning Tim,
Ending phrases Regards,
With best wishes,
With many thanks and best wishes,

You also need to know which phrases to use only in a formal email or an informal one:

  Formal Informal
Starting phrases

Dear Mr Piper,
Dear Sir or Madam,

Hi Tim,
Hi there Tim,
Morning/Afternoon/Evening Tim,
Hello again Tim,
Ending phrases Yours sincerely,
Yours faithfully,
Yours truly,
Bye for now,
See you soon,

Task 1

Task 2

Task 3

Task 4

Average: 3.9 (32 votes)
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Submitted by wTT on Fri, 09/02/2024 - 07:32


Thank you ! I made one mistake.

Submitted by davtho on Wed, 26/07/2023 - 13:07


Dear Teachers,

I would like to ask for some clarification on the vocative comma. I read in other websites (https://www.grammarly.com/blog/comma-rules-for-business-emails/) that we should put a comma between the name of the person and the salutation. Is that correct? In the examples given here there's no comma, not even in the formal version.
Also, is the option of the colon at the end of very professional emails used or a simple comma is preferred?
Thank you in advance for your time and answers.
Best regards,

Hello David,

This is a question of style -- in other words, it depends on who you ask.

As far as I know, grammarly uses a dataset based largely on American English. As far as I know, the vocative comma is always used in American English -- I grew up there and as you may have noticed, I still use the comma.

While there may be some British style guides that also call for the vocative comma, the one that we use at the British Council does not, and as far as I can tell, most British English speakers do not use it. If you do an internet search for 'british style guides', you should find several options.

I'm afraid I don't really know the answer to your question about colons. In any case, it will depend on whatever style you decide to use!

All the best,
LearnEnglish team

Submitted by howtosay_ on Sun, 16/07/2023 - 23:07


Hello, dear teachers and team!

Could you please help me with the following:

Which option is correct:

1. Here is the list: (and then I add the list)

2. Here the list is: (and then I add the list)

Thank you very much indeed for your precious help and I'm very grateful for the answer to this comment beforehand!

Hello howtosay_,

Both of those are fine, but most of the time we say 'here is ...' when presenting something in the manner you describe. So 1 is generally the best option, though 2 could be fine in particular situations.

All the best,
LearnEnglish team

Submitted by jyoti Chaudhary on Wed, 25/05/2022 - 11:22


I learn many things in this video and I will apply them when I send an email to anyone.

Profile picture for user Mihalev

Submitted by Mihalev on Mon, 25/04/2022 - 10:57



I have a query with regard to the use of phrases like 'good morning', 'good afternoon' as a start of an email. When they are used on their own, without a name, do we need to capitalise the second word or not? Which one is correct:

Good Morning,


Good morning,

I have been looking for information online and could not find an authoritative source I could rely upon.

Your help would be much appreciated.

Kind regards,


Hello Mariyan,

There is no single authority I know of for this. In general, though, I would recommend 'Good morning' instead of 'Good Morning' as a salutation in emails.

Hope this helps.

All the best,
The LearnEnglish Team

Submitted by Olga_Chernyav on Thu, 18/11/2021 - 12:13


convenient format of tasks

Submitted by IlyaK on Tue, 16/03/2021 - 20:27

A clear example of building an email template